When the significant reasons for low enrollment.

When Pakistan came into being, most
teacher education was initially based on the British model of post-academic
degree training. Now teacher education has  developed in a variety of ways, including a
recent rapid growth of market-model programsand private sector in-service

Many policy reforms by the government of Pakistan began in
the late 1990s resulted in the rapid growth of offerings of off-campus teacher
education programs. In 2000, Pakistan committed to the Dakar Framework for
Action to achieve “Education for All” (EFA) goals (UNESCO, 2000); however, in
an international education reforms environment, Pakistan already had began
planning and implementing education reforms through its National Education
Policy (NEP) 1998-2010. Because Pakistan’s net enrollment rate at the primary
level was one of the lowest in the world, policy makers identified the lack of
qualified (trained) teachers as one of the significant reasons for low
enrollment. About one fifth of in-service teachers in public school systems
were untrained in Pakistan by this time (AEPAM Islamabad, 1998). This is why
the NEP 1998-2010 (Ministry of Education Government of Pakistan, 1998)
contained a chapter on reforms to improve teacher quality through providing
teacher training which included in-service refresher training and teacher
education certification of untrained in-service teachers. The criticism by
researchers/scholars in the late 1990s, combined with pressure from local
stakeholders and international donors, had pushed the federal government to
focus on teacher education in order to improve the quality of teaching in
Pakistan. Similar pressures aroused efforts to improve the quality of teachers
and teaching through effective teacher education (in-service and pre-service),
as Pakistan committed to “Education for All.” 
Thus the National Education Policy 1998-2010 provided a section on
improving teacher quality through teacher education, which led to many
in-service teacher training reforms, such as short refresher courses, short
in-service certificate programs, and continuing professional development programs
for teachers. There  is 
a  consensus  amongst 
all  stakeholders that  the 
quality  of  teachers 
in  the  public 
sector  is  unsatisfactory.  Poor 
quality  of  teacher 
in  the  system 
in  large  numbers 
is  owed  to 
the  alterations  in 
governance,  an  outmoded  pre-service 
training  structure  and  a  less 
than  acceptable  in 
service  training  administration.  Presence 
of  ineffectiveness  in 
such  a  huge  extent  and  spread  of  misconducts  in 
the  profession  have  worn  the 
once  dignified  position 
enjoyed  by  teachers 
under  the eastern cultural ambiance.
Teaching has become the occupation of last option of most educated young
persons; especially males. Reform is required in all areas: pre-service
training and standardization of qualifications; professional  development; 
teacher  remuneration,  career 
progression  and  status; 
and  governance  and 
management  of  the 
teaching  workforce.  The 
growth  of  private 
sector  is  adding 
new  complexities  to 
the  teaching  profession 
and  needs  to be 
taken  into  account 
in  any  reform 
of  he  system. 

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