When both speakers face because two-third of the

When the child starts obtaining language?
He starts earlier than most of us think, in his mother’s womb, where he gets
acquainted and be familiar with the rhythms of the sounds that is around him and
ends much later in life, because there is an end of sound and grammar
acquisition, but there is always some new words to learn, therefore, language
acquisition is an ongoing process that accompanied us along the different
stages of life. The scientists studied child languages acquisition and developed
theories about vocabulary, discourse, and grammar acquisition which is not just
applicable only to the English language, but also to other languages too.
Literacy is not limited in its use on education or at work, it is part of our
everyday life in malls, restaurants, and even within the same families where literacy
practice is encouraged to help the child to grasp and understand the use of
language, to have confidence in delivering his messages properly in written and
spoken form, and to express his intentions and personality according to the
image he wants to deliver to the people around him.

The orthography system of the English has
its downsides which cause some difficulties that the child needs to conquer in
order to have a good command over the language, but it has its upsides that
simplify the learning of this language. Currently, the English language is an
international language that is not just used by native speakers but also by
non-native speakers. Through the course of learning English there are identical
or divergent problems that both speakers face because two-third of the children
around the world are born in bilingual environment.

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The language is among the first human
inventions, the study of language in its wondering nature and complexity and
how the human being is able to perceive it is still contentious matter between
scientists, to understand language acquisition we have to take bits and pieces
of this jigsaw and try to bring those pieces together to understand the bigger
picture that make us unique.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Language is a
mean of communicating and expressing thoughts and ideas. The need of a spoken
language emerged first by making sounds that represent pictures which address
the auditory system, then letters and words that address the ophthalmic system
of the human being. The necessity of a writing system aroused from the need to
record events and communicate it with different people across the different
period of time. Different writing systems were developed across the world which
varies in its complexity.(Webster,1806) It relates, letters, syllables and sentence
to communicate language through speaking and writing.                                                                                                                          

The child starts learning language by
imitation and exploring through babbling, then he uses a one word sentence,
next a two word sentence, and later a whole sentence where he begins to expand
his language which is not confined to speaking, but also to reading and writing
skills too(ww.englanglanguage acquisition.weebly.com), so Speech is important in developing language skills,
improving vocabulary, receiving and producing language, furthermore,
understanding the connection between spoken and written language is essential
to organize and deliver the meaning of the message in a more efficient and
coherent way.(ww.lob.ca).

Orthography is “the accepted way of spelling and
writing.” (ww.cambridgedictionary.org)

“The art of writing words with the proper letter
according to standard use “(ww.meriam-webster.com) .                                     

 The English
language has an alphabetical system that consists of twenty-six letters written
from left to right side ways to bottom. English is a syllabic language which
consists of five vowels and twenty-one consonants; letters are compound to
convey a more complex meaning(words) which could be broken into rime and onset
and words are brought together in a special manner to give a much more complex
meaning(sentences), this means that the alphabetical system is directly related
to semantics, grammar, phonology.(ww,uefap.com) . In a perfect language every
letter corresponds to a sound, however, some of them correspond with more than
one sound. (Webster, 1806).The inconsistencies in the English orthography made
English a challenging language to acquire even for children who are
mono-lingual English native speakers, because many inconsistencies were not
just at the level of the letter and their presentation of more than one sound,
but also at the level of words.                               

  Historically
the English language is a dialect; its position was elevated and became an
international language spoken by many tongues as a mother language or second or
foreign language, it came into contact with English like Latin, German, French,
Danish which brought many words into the language and changing other words
meaning pronunciation and use, For example: the word colonel has French and
Italian origin, In French, it is coronel, but in Italian it is colonello, now
it is written in the Italian way and spelled in the French way. Building on
what is previously written the grapheme-morpheme relationship in English is
opaque due to the loan words, which were largely absorbed by the English
language causing frozen spelling for a massive amount of word which makes the
prediction of its pronunciation and writing very hard.(ww.youtube.com)                                               There are other
difficulties that face not just children but adult too, for example some sounds
stayed or disappeared ,the /f/ sound in words like: cough, enough, through or
thought, other sounds were lost at the beginning of the words in words like:
wrong and knee, some letters become silent when pronounced for e.g. Psychology,
Island. Daughter, furthermore words have swallowed syllables e.g. Vegetable is
pronounced vegtable (ww.thought.com), and some English letters give many different
pronunciations for the same letter for e.g. the words bear, ear and heart.

The English orthography stabilized through the
centuries mostly because of the printing invention by Guttenberg, which helped
in the dissemination of English and the role lexicographer who document the
pronunciation and writing of millions of word albeit the difference between
different standard English like standard American, standard British …Etc.(ww.youtube.com)
The English orthography has its positive sides, the spelling system help to
differentiate homophones in words, for example: alter and altar, morphemes like
inflections stay the same with different words e.g. sides, derived. (allington,mayor,2012)

Studies of the various aspects of the English language
led to the development of new methods of teaching the based on the different
perspectives that was adopted by many institutions and was pointed out for its
efficiency even among parents, one of those perspectives is social perspective,
which depends on the need and the necessity for the child to express his
emotions, needs, and his social identity in the society, and since spoken and
written language are closely related literacy becomes a part of a wider
communicative practice, using literacy in this sense involves exchanging
knowledge with a social-network, parents or caregivers who have their essential
role in the way children acquire language, getting involved in these practices will
help the children to gain literacy in a more effective way like storybook
reading which studies shown that it supports the child language development,
and literacy practice later in life.(ww.2.sfasu.edu)

There are many other reasons that affect
how child literacy evolved, which involve the culture of his parents, the society
that he is surrounded by and the economic status of his parents, the level of
their education, the school’s environment, the quality of learning, social class,
religion, the position of the child in the family, and how he deals with the
difficulties that he faces which is part of the child psychology.

The literacy of the child at an early age
is strongly connected to learning the alphabet it is the first predictor to his
or her reading and writing accomplishments in his first formal schooling process that is
intertwined with the parent’s role in involving their children in practices on
a frequent basis with multiple genres of literacy like children’s fiction or
adventurous stories, newspapers adds…etc, another key role in acquiring the
language in children is their relationship with their parents and their parent
beliefs about literacy.Many activities are used by parents at home or in school
that facilitate literacy practice as a social activity like engaging children
in songs, hymen’s books, spelling contests, flash cards and interacting with
children in conversation to see how they understand literacy and literary
texts, furthermore the need to encourage children emotionally and physically to
learn written and spoken language alter the child perspective toward learning
and make it more appealing to him(ww.2.sfasu.edu).

The literacy practice of English also existed in
bilingual communities which is also affected by religion, social class, schools
parent’s educational level. The bilingual children may have in common impediments
with native speakers or different problems in learning English for example if
their other language is written from right to left, not from left to right they
may start writing English from right to left, or they may think about the
subject in one language and write it in another or they may code-switch during
writing.

Finally, there must be a collaboration of efforts
between families, teachers and the society around him and trying to use the
best practices that will allow the child to have a good command over language,
so he or she would be articulate in the way he wants to express his emotions,
needs, and pursue what he really wants through education and life to convey the
full potential of his persona.