What is a barrier?
A barrier is factors that prevent an individual from
gaining access to health, social care and early years’ services. A person may
face more than one barrier to access a service.
These instances prevent an individual from accessing certain care services.
E.g: If a child is disabled and attending nursery but the
nursery only consists of stairs and no lift. This will prevent the child from
accessing school resulting in the child falling behind in schoolwork, not
developing skills and feeling lonely. In order to overcome this barrier, the
nursery could think about installing a ramp so the child finds it easier to
access the nursery. By installing a ramp, the child will be able to attend the
nursery safely without getting hurt. However if the barrier was removed the
child may feel as if they are an outsider and do not belong to the nursery. The
child may also feel judged due to his/her ability and get into a mindset where
they feel that they are not good enough compared to the other children.
E.g: The nursery only consists of adult sized toilets
that are not suitable for those who have disabilities resulting in them having
difficulty going to the toilet. This may make the children feel embarrassed
about not being able to go to the toilet by themselves and the child could
become a victim of bullying. In order to prevent this from happening the
nursery could put in place a disabled toilet for the child to have easier
access. This will boost the child’s independence, as they will be able to go to
the toilet without any supervision. On the other hand, if the barrier was
removed the child may feel isolated and feel that the nursery is not catering
to their needs. This may result in the child not going to the toilet and in
turn holding it in resulting in weak bladder problems in the future as well as
E.g: The child’s nursery hours does not correspond with
the parent’s work hours, making it difficult for them to collect and drop their
child off. This will make the child feel lonely, as the child may be the last
one to be picked up from nursery. The nursery should arrange after school clubs
such as art to keep the child occupied until the parent is ready to collect
their child. By doing this the child will feel less lonely, have the
opportunity to make friends and get to know those in the play group better. If
the barriers was removed, then this will once again reinforce the idea of the
child feeling lonely and neglected as no one can find a solution to cater to
the child’s needs. This may affect the child during nursery hours, as they
would dread the time after school and in turn not join in activities designed
for the child’s growth.
refers to the way a person perceives services.
E.g: The child has first transitioned to nursery, and is
crying every time the parents try to leave. This shows the nursery staff that
the child is afraid of independence and relies on his parents a lot. To try to
build up the child’s independence, the parents may stay for the first week with
their child for about 2 hours and as the week progresses on the parents will
lessen their stay time until the child has stopped crying, settled in, and does
not require the presence of the parents. This will allow the child to gain
independence, confidence and the chance to try to learn new things. In contrast
if the barrier was removed, the child would never have the opportunity to gain
independence and always would be dependent on his/her parents, this will slow
down the process of the child gaining confidence and learning new things. The
parents may also be affected, as their child will not let go of the attachment
they have and stop them from doing their daily activities such as going to
E.g: The child’s phobia of spiders is so intense that the
fright of them often triggers his asthma or he faints whenever one crosses his
path. This phobia of spiders was thwarting the child’s attempts at
independence. It also meant that the child missed educational visits such as
the woods as it consisted of spiders. To overcome this phobia, the nursery
nurse could gradually, slowly and repeatedly try to expose the to child to his
phobia in a safe and controlled way. As time passes this exposure process may
make the child feel more comfortable with spiders. By allowing this to happen,
the child will be able to build up his confidence and no longer have to miss
out on trips. Moreover, if the barrier was removed the child may feel uncomfortable
in his surroundings and agitated whenever a spider is around. The child’s
asthma may even take a turn for the worse and cause him serious health
problems. The child may also feel left out and neglected when the nursery is on
school trips and the child is not allowed to go due to his phobia thus
resulting in a stunted growth and skills.
E.g: The child is afraid of interacting with the other
kids and joining in with activities. This contributes to the fact that the
child is afraid of making friends and socialising with the playgroup. To help
the child the nursery nurse could organise activates in little groups such as
throwing the ball. This will make the child feel more comfortable around his
peers and start to interact with his playmates. Furthermore removing this
barrier would make the child feel even more scared to interact with the other
children. The child may feel lonely and insecure and fear coming to the nursery
each day. The child will not be able to learn essential life skills such as
sharing if interaction with other children is not met.
This barrier is to do with how much it might cost to access a service.
E.g: In order to be allowed to go on the school trip, the
child’s parents must pay a fee, this could be financially difficult for them as
they may not be able to afford the cost of the trip, by not being able to
afford the cost of the trip, the parents are damaging their child’s ability to
achieve his full potential, also the child is missing out on educational opportunities,
an adventure and a fun enjoyable day out away from the classroom. To prevent this
from being the case the school could hold a fate or do something to help raise
money on behalf of those who find it difficult to pay for the cost of the
school trip. By being able to go on the school trip the child has the chance to
improve self-esteem, ability to emphasise and understand new perspectives,
increase motivation and the unique opportunity to ‘learn by doing’.
Additionally if the barrier was removed, the child may feel obscure and
secluded as to why he/she cannot go. The child may blame its parents and
him/herself as well as not having the opportunity to go on educational trips
lowering the child’s self-esteem due to their family being less fortunate.
E.g: The child has grown out of her uniform and requires
a new set. But as the parents are tight for money and uniform prices are
incredibly high for them they are unable to provide for their child. As a
result of this the child may feel isolated or bullied at school or in worse
case scenarios sent home for improper uniform. To overcome this situation, the
school should provide a discount on school uniform to those who are on low
income or in financial difficulty. By wearing the uniform, the child’s feels as
if there is a sense of belonging at the school. This also allows the child to
stimulate positive behaviour as wearing the same as everyone else. Conversely,
removing his barrier may make the child feel terrified to attend school due to
the thought of being judged and in worst-case scenarios – bullied. The child may feel embarrassed if told off
for uniform lowering their confidence and isolation from others becoming more
E.g: The child lives far away from the nursery. The
parents may find it financially difficult to be able to pay the price of their
transport, resulting in the child walking every day to get to school. This may
take its toll on the child, and the child may not look forward to attending
nursery if it is raining or snowing the child will still have to walk to school
making the child feel tired and exhausted and may see the nursey as a place he
does not want to be. To try to make this better the bus prices may be reduced
for those who are finding it difficult to get to school and those who are less
fortunate. This will allow the child to go to school, happily without the worry
of having to walk such a distance to and from school. In addition, if this
barrier was removed the child may feel tired and exhausted walking to school
every day putting strain on the child to take part in physical activities e.g.
running as the child may have no strength. This could in turn result in
collapses or even asthma.
occurs when people living in rural areas may not be able to access certain care
services. E.g: dentist, nurseries etc…
E.g: The parents live in a rural area and would like to
send their child to an early year’s facility like a pre-school but cannot do
because they live too far away for it to be economical. This may result in the
child falling behind in developing skills such as talking, walking etc… It
also could make it difficult for the child to make friends in later years. To
overcome this barrier, the nursery could allocate a key person to visit the
home of the child once a week to help them develop skills and form a bond with
them. By doing these home visits, the child is not missing anything and is
still doing things as if in a nursery. Despite this if the barrier was removed
the child would lack developing the essential skills needed for growth and
making it harder for the child to interact later on in the life with other
people due to not being taught to speak or walk.
E.g: The Childs parents are not able to drop their child
off to nursery because they can’t travel there as they do not possess a car.
This will contribute to the child missing put on activities that are designed
to encourage social, creative, communication, listening skills as well as
physical development. The nursery could supply transport to families living in
rural areas that cannot afford a car or transport so their children can go to
nursery. By allowing this to happen, the child is able to go to nursery and
take part in a wide variety of activities such as painting, singing songs and
listening to stories. This will also give the child the chance to learn in a
group. This can help gain confidence and develop social skills. None the less
removing the barrier would make the child feel isolated and angry with his/her
parents for not possessing such items. The child may also feel neglected and
feel as if his/her do not care for the child’s educational wellbeing. As well
as this, the child will miss important life skills and activities deigned to
promote this within a nursery setting.
E.g: The child’s mobility problem means that the child
cannot walk long distances preventing him from getting to the early year’s
services. To prevent this from happening the nursery could create a bursary for
people living in rural areas allowing them to travel. The child will no longer
have to walk but can go by transport. Now that the child can go to nursery, the
child can take part in many activities and enjoy being there despite his
mobility problems. The child also gets the opportunity to socialize with other
kids of his age. On the other hand, taking this barrier away could make the
child feel upset and desolate about his/her mobility problem and that the
nursery cannot help to make the child feel more loved and give the child the
ability to socialise with others.
Cultural and language Barrier:
Cultural: Is a wall between
people because of their identity differences.
Language: When two people
cannot communicate because they speak different language, cannot understand
each other affecting the needs of the services that need to be met.
E.g: The child is new to the nursery but cannot speak the
language of the country. This may put the child off using the nursery as the
child may believe that there is no need of him being there as he will not
understand anything because of his unablity to speak and understand English.
This may make the child feel as though he cannot make any friends resulting in
the child feeling very isolated and lonely. To try and help the child feel
welcome and fit in, the nursery could think about bringing in an interpreter to
help the child understand the terminology of the language used throughout the
nursery. This will allow the child to learn another language and slowly fit in
and make friends.by removing this barrier the child may feel isolated and
believe that he is not worthy of being at the nursery.
The child may feel judged and bullied for his/her inability to speak English.
E.g: The child is
deaf and does not understand anything being said. This may make the child feel
inferior to everyone else at the nursery and even become a victim of bullying.
To try to help the child the nursery could learn how to do sign language a way
in which they could communicate with the child. This will allow the child to
understand what is being said without any difficulty and be able to enjoy
school. Furthermore, if the barrier was removed than the child may feel scared
to come to school due to inability to hear. The child may also feel unvalued
and feel as if they do not belong there.
E.g: The nursery have organised a non-uniform day, one
child comes in wearing clothes of his culture. The child may be bullied or made
fun out of his clothes as his wearing something different to everyone else. The
child can tell the teacher and the teacher could arrange an activity in where
all the children tell their playgroup about their different cultures and their
backgrounds. This will help the children to get to know their playmates a lot
better and prevent them from bullying in the future. In contrast by removing
this barrier the child may feel uncomfortable in the nursery setting and unable
to be him/ herself. The child may also feel as though the nursery is not
promoting any diversity of care making the child feel even more upset and
Resource barrier: Is
resources that organisations require before they can provide care services.
E.g: skilled staff, buildings etc…
E.g: the child attends nursery but there is a lack of
qualified staff at the nursery. This could make the child feel upset about not
going to nursery, seeing friends, taking part in activities etc… to prevent
his from happening the nursery could put up signs for placements for qualified
skilled staff who know how to care for children. This will allow the child to
go to nursery and not miss out on day to day activities.
E.g: The size of the nursery is too small and cannot
accommodate many children. This may prevent the child from going to school and
having to wait a long time for a space. This will also contribute to the child
not developing skills, feeling lonely and not being able to make friends. To overcome
this barrier, the nursery could extend its building so it can accommodate more
children. This will allow the child to go to nursery see friends, take part in
many activities, develop skills and enjoy themselves.
E.g: The nursery does not require enough equipment for
the children to take part in various activities. This could result in the child
not developing skills, socializing with peers and may feel as they do not want
to go to nursery to do the same activities day by day. To make this better the
nursery could invest in a various amount of equipment such as colouring
pencils, books, toys etc… this will allow the child to take part in a wide
variety of activities. By allowing them to take part in different activities
the child will gain rich experiences which will later help to maximise their growth