We information will be stored for a specific

We have a water problem, globally, 28% of water delivered by utilities is lost due to leaks, inaccurate usage measurement, and theft. In some countries, non-revenue water rates exceed 50%. Updating water infrastructure with advanced metering technology and communications software seems like a logical step toward accounting for, and ultimately reducing the amount of water lost. In America, water infrastructure needs to increase its efficiency—and much of that improvement begins with accurate measurements (Laura, 2016). Currently, manual meter reading is still widely used in utility companies; utility personnel must periodically collect meter data indicating the volume of water or gas that has passed through a particular pipe, as well as provide maintenance to pipes or meters. In the case of meter data, workers must proceed to a meter and manually write down its details, along with that meter’s identification number. If an employee makes a mistake, the wrong information will be stored for a specific meter in the utility company’s system. What’s more, in some cases, a worker could commit fraud by pretending to visit a meter but merely entering numbers into the company’s records. When a water meter is inaccessible, meter-reading estimates are made, which introduce potential data errors into the process (Claire , 2010).     Nairobi City Water and Sewerage Company, suffers approximately 40% of non-revenue water; water that cannot be accounted for. Non-revenue water is categorized into two groups; physical losses and commercial losses. The regulatory agency Water Services Regulatory Board (WASREB) estimated non-revenue water in Nairobi at 40% in 2008/09 and at 42% in 2009/10. Customer accounts in Nairobi city water and sewerage company are grouped in itineraries. An ideal itinerary which is manageable in a day should have at least 100 meters but if the meters are scattered far and wide, it may have less while if they are concentrated in a particular place the itinerary may have more meters than 100 meters. The itineraries have boundaries and hence a marketing assistant cannot jump from one itinerary to another looking for meters. The main challenge is that the itinerary is read within a day. In the case where a meter reader fails to read all the meters assigned to him, he is required to revisit his itinerary within the month. An itinerary is allocated to a marketing assistant from our Mobile Field Assistant systems where he downloads it for reading. Once the marketing assistants begins to read meters from the ground, he is required to periodically upload the readings in the device and the readings are received by Mobile Field Assistant and then they are pushed to Customer Management System for further billing. In some instances, some readings do not automatically translate into bills because of several reasons e.g. the meter captured by the mobile field assistant doesn’t match the one in Customer Management System, the readings captured are less or way higher than those billed previously and in some cases the meter captured is either damaged or misty. All these are scenarios that cause the received readings to first of all pend in a status called exception and this usually requires the staff in the exceptions section to resolve so that the readings can end up resulting into bills that are payable. Sometimes marketing assistants capture things like gate locks, straight pieces or cut offs in places that previously had meters and this usually results to anomalies that must also be resolved by the exception people.Various factors affect effective meter reading and billing like when the network is poor or when the systems are not working in tandem with the mobile field assistant, then it becomes difficult for the marketing assistants to read. Sometimes there are issues of supply fail or hostile customers and hence allocated work is not completed within the timelines that are stipulated.