Water research paper, based on secondary data,

Water pollution:
causes, effects, and solutions


1. Introduction

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is a very crucial source for human being and creature. In our daily life, there
are no days people do not use water. About 250 litres is used for daily
activities in a city, 1500 litres is used for industry, and 2000 litres for
agriculture. Water which covers about about 99% weights of creatures live in, and
44% of human weight of body. One ton of paper needed to manufacture 250 tonnes
of water, one ton of nitrates fertilizers need 600 tonnes of water, and the
amount of water need to produce one ton of rice flour is 100 tons of water (Vietnam
administration, 2009). It is believed how crucial water is; however, water is
not ever lasting as people think. In fact, there are 97,2% is saline water, 2,15
% is forever rice and only around 0,65% is water for human to exploit (GEEC n.d
). Today, when living standard is increasing, environment including water is
polluted. This problem not only impacts people’s activities but also their
health because of dirty water. This research paper, based on secondary data,
will discuss causes, affects of water pollution in Vietnam and how to deal with
the problem.

Discussion of findings

What are the causes of water pollution?

Water pollution is defined
as chemical, biological, or physical change in properties of water  that will have a detrimental influence in living
things. Today, Vietnam is facing a worsening water environment. There are many causes
leading to water pollution, but the two main causes of water pollution in Vietnam
were the weakness in industrial wastewater management and the lack of awareness
among citizens.

One main cause of this issue is waste water coming from the industries. Due to the target of maximizing profits, many enterprises have violated the mining process, contributing to significant environmental pollution

of enterprises did not have any treating waste water system. Professor Le Trinh
(Institute from the Ministry of Natural Resources and Evironment) said that according to statistics,
each year, a large volume of untreated wastewater is directly  released into rivers, lakes, and ponds
causing serious pollution of surface water. The industries produce large amount of waste which contains
some kind of chemical substances such as sulphur, nitrates and many other
harmful chemicals. The toxic chemicals have the capability to change the color
of water, increase the amount of minerals, also known as eutrophication, change
the temperature of water and pose serious hazard to water organisms.

cause of water pollution in Vietnam is the public’s lack of awareness. People use water for many purposes,
for instance, wash hands,
cars, dishes, shower and so on, and then people dump waste water or
garbage directly into rivers, canal, and ponds. According to the article ” Water
pollution getting worse: experts”(2017) Nguyen Van Thuy, director of
the Centre for Environment Monitoring said that in the Red River Delta, 80% of water were used for daily
activities became wastewater, making
the region the largest wastewater discharger
in the country. In 2004, because of bird flu outbreak into Vietnam,
people throw poultry to water body that makes water highly polluted. Also since the poverty in living
standard in suburban areas that brings many risks for environment especially
for water, which affects human and ecosytem (Mrs.Nguyen Ngoc Lien n.d).
Moreover, villages in Vietnam involved in paper production, likestock
slaughtering, weaving and dyeing also produced a huge volume of wastewater and
solid waster, all of which was discharged into the environment in a careless
manner or farmers use artificial fertilizers and chemicals for the growth of
plants; therefore, that contributes to water pollution in Vietnam.

What are the effect of water pollution?

of the causes impact on aquatic life and human health, including lack of clean
water. According to the report of Thanh Truc (nd), Le Anh Tuan , a climate
change expert with VNR based in Can Tho city, said that because of exploitation
and increased pollution, most people in Vietnam’s rural areas, particularly in the
South near the Mekong Delta, do not have daily access to clean water.
Similarly, Ally G, Mattawan and MI (2012) indicate that only about 60% of the
Vietnamese people access water being clean and drinkable. Barely half of the
population are able to acquire unpolluted and hygienic water. Ethan Caranto (2016)
said that with population of over 94,515,000 people, only 39% of rural areas in
Vietnam get fresh drinking water. That causes a lot of diseases and intestinal
sickness among people living in the vicinity of the river such as skin cancer,
cholera or malaria. According to a 1995 World Bank study (G. Tyler Miller, JR.
1997), contaminated water contributes to about 80% of the disease in developing
countries and skills about 10 million people annually- an average of 27,000
premature deaths per day, more than half of them children under age 5.

water pollution in Vietnam is extremely harmful to local marine wildlife. A
report on the environmental situation by Ministry of Natural Resources and
Environment (MONRE), Vietnam’s marine ecosystem is cotinuing to degrade. Biodiversity
in Vietnam, especially in coastal areas, is increasingly endangered. Mangrove
forests seriously devastated and up to 90% of coral reefs are threatened to be
destroyed, and at least 85% sea species are in danger at various levels with
70% species being named on the country’s Red List(Vietnamnews, 2016). In
addition, in the article” Vietnam investigates mass fish deaths” (2016), the
author shows that tonnes of fish, including rare species living far offshore
and in the deep, have been discovered on beaches along the country’s central
coastal provinces of Ha Tinh, Quang Tri, Quang Binh and Hue that be died(
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/apr/21/vietnam-investigates-mass-fish-deaths-pollution. Thus, many organisms are dying, which disrupts food chains and as a
result, animal species havw the important to become endangered or extinct.

2.3. How to solve water pollution?

deal with this issue, both Vietnamese government and citizens should work
together. First, government,
including local councils should give strict laws that help minimize water
pollution. These laws are usually directed at industries, hospitals, schools
and market areas on how to dispose, treat and manage sewage (Ally G, Mattawan,
MI, 2012). The government strongly encourages private sector participation in
solid  collection, separation,
transportation, and treatment, and to minimize burying waste, the government
encourages new technologies to treat less degradable waste.

Not only the government but also people
should contribute to the campaign against water polution. To begin with, people
need to be aware that water plays an important role in our life. One of the
simplest methods to reduce water pollution is to use less water and avoid unnecessary
wastage. This will cause less water to get contaminated, ultimately causing
less water pollution. Besides, people use less artificial fertilizers and
chemicals, and going in for organic farming will help in limiting water
pollution, too.

3. Conclusion

This research aims to show some of causes ,
effects of water pollution problem in Vietnam. To tackle this issue, it is necessary
for the government and people to work together. Especially, for individuals, it
is important to increase the awareness of water pollution because nowadays many
people do not seem to realize how important water is to our survival and
progress. Every country, business, community, and individual use it, and it
impacts on all aspects of life. When the quality of water decreases, everything
it affects falls behind it. That’s why water is a crucial role in people health
and their daily activities. Obviously, those measures will take time and a lot
of efforts from everyone; howerver, it would bring a better life and future for
their generations.