Veejay ParsotanAICE Euro 21/5/18Changes in pre-industrial society (Agricultural Revolution)Key Question: What were the causes of the Industrial Revolution by 1800?The main cause of the Industrial Revolution was the Agricultural Revolution itself because it served as a starting point for the rest of the revolution and created a domino like effect for more inventions to come in different sectors. With an increase in British food production, populations could be fed at lower prices than ever before and with much less effort. This meant that money saved from food purchases could be invested into manufactured goods. This gave rise to a capitalistic society with Marxist ideals. Additionally, classes changed and it was no longer nobles and peasants. It evolved into the working class, the middle class, and the upper class. With the creation of these new classes, a meritocracy was finally formed and people were able to move up in society. Furthermore, because there was more food and advances in different sectors, populations grew rapidly as there was increased birth rates. With a booming cotton business and trade sector, British financial institutions allowed investors to create factories. Eventually, these factories started to make use of Britain’s mineral resources to create more inventions to come. Entrepreneurs made investments and were willing to risk money for financial rewards in the end. By this time, English revolutions were headed towards economic prosperity. However, Marxism brought about a class conflict within the Industrial Revolution was between the middle class and the working class. Marx said that the fall of capitalism would occur when the working class would not be able buy the goods that it produced. Throughout the Industrial Revolution, new sources of energy were used to power machines that aimed to reduce human labor and drive production rates up.Timeline:Seed Drill (Jethro Tull, 1701) created an efficient way to plant seeds. Originally, farmers had to spread seeds by hand causing uneven distribution. The seed drill was pulled by a horse and was able to spread seeds in even, straight rows.Impact: The yield of crops was much higher as productivity was increased due to a more efficient and faster way to spread seeds. This lowered food prices and allowed for farmers who were poor to now be able to afford food. It also decreased jobs in the agricultural industry because the seeds didn’t need to be spread by human workers. Also, allowed for farmers to plant more seeds over larger areas of land.Horse Drawn Hoe (Jethro Tull, 1701) made the weeding process more efficient and less laborious for that of their human counterparts. Impact: Got rid of weeds more efficiently than its human counterparts but took away jobs. Helped keep crops alive for longer and used the weeds collected as fertilizer. The weeds were pulverized by the hoe and left on top to fertilize the plants. Tull thought that this was better than using horse manure for fertilization.Rotherham Plow (Disney Stanyforth and Joseph Foljambe, 1703) was much lighter than previous plows because it was constructed with both iron and wood, rather than all wood. It was advantageous for its time because it was easily workable with two horses.Impact: The plow made it much quicker to turn soil which allowed for crops to grow faster. In turn, this allowed for food to become less expensive because there was more supply of the food being produced.Newcomen’s Steam Engine (Thomas Newcomen, 1712) was the first commercially successful steam engine. It was able to keep deep coal mines clear of water. Impact: This early version of the steam engine was made to keep water out of deep coal mines. This was important because it kept mines clear of flooding and helped to alleviate concerns with poisonous mining gases that existed underground. This allowed for more coal to be mined more efficiently to power machinery.Four Year Crop Rotation (Charles Townshend, 1730) was the idea that crops could be rotated on a four year basis. Townshend used turnips and cloves as two of the crops in the rotation. Clover was able to be fed to livestock and produce healthier manure. Turnips made the soil richer by adding nitrates. Impact: This rotation allows for the soil in the farms to not have only one set of nutrients. Additionally, it reduces soil erosion, increases soil fertility, and crop yield.Selective Breeding (Robert Bakewell, 1760) was a concept that breeded certain animals together to produce a stronger animal to do farm work. The focus was to create cattle that could be used for their strength in farm work and sheep for their wool.Impact: This breeding helps to make a superior breed of animal that would benefit the farm that it lives on. Additionally, it helps to control diseases associated with the animals because they are not breeded in and more animals are produced when breeding selective ones. More animals being produced is more productivity which turns into more profit.Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves, 1764) spun more than one ball of yarn or thread at a time, making it easier and faster to make cloth.Impact: Using this machine, one spinner could spin 8 threads or 8 balls of yarn at the same time. However, cloth makers did lose jobs with the creation of this machine. In response to this, they broke into Hargreaves home and destroyed the machine before it was in the mainstream.Water Frame (Richard Arkwright, 1768) is a water powered spinning frame that was an easy way to create cotton thread. It was able to spin 128 threads at a time.Impact: This was the first textile machine that was powered by water. It spun 128 strands of yarn at once which was an improvement over the previous spinning machine which only spun 8 at a time. This increased the factory production of textiles.Watt’s Steam Engine (James Watt, 1769) is more powerful and efficient than the one created by Thomas Newcomen. Steam engines go on to power the first trains, steamboats, and factories.Impact: This was an improvement on Newcomen’s steam engine. The motor was made continuous, so the engine could operate for longer periods of time. Additionally, later on in the revolution, the steam engine became a driving force for transportation and factories. Steam engines made travel quicker and easier on land and water fronts. Factories were able to be located anywhere as steam engines could power them rather than rivers.Threshing Machine (Andrew Meikle, 1786) was a device used to remove the outer husks from grains of wheat faster than intensive and slow human labor.Impact: Removed jobs from the agricultural sector but sped up efficiency and production times of removing the outer husks from grain and wheat. This allowed for farmers to increase their output greatly and made farming easier overall.Cotton Gin (Eli Whitney, 1794) revolutionized the production of cotton by greatly speeding up the process of removing seeds from cotton fiber.Impact: Instead of having to use very slow human labor, the Cotton Gin revolutionized taking the seeds out of cotton. This made production times faster and increased efficiency.