Unit of the building to the end of

Unit 14 – Electrical safety: Statutory and non-statutory rights

 

A statutory
requirement is a requirement for an industry that is controlled by the
government. Because of this, the industry must follow the rules and regulations
that is informed by the government. An example of a statutory regulation is the
security in the exchange commissions controlled by the us government. Whereas a
non-statutory regulation can give you more guidance and advisable.

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Non-statutory
documents within the electrical industry are considered more of a guidance than
statutory documents. Non statutory in the world of electrical installations has
become common practice to use this term to describe the most reliable and
informative industry reference material, such as Codes of Practice (COP),
British Standards (such as BS 7671) and even Best Practice Guides.

 

Statutory regulations

 

1.      
Health and Safety at Work act HASAW 1974 (Commercial)

Health and safety at work Act 1974 is one of
the main regulations that is used in a work place to help secure the health,
welfare and safety of people working. This could be the employees, visitors and
the others working in the work place. It covers electrical installations as
well; it covers all aspects, which regards to making a work place safe. This
act is a commercial premise. HSWA has made a work place safer by keeping
control of possession of dangerous substances, controlling certain emission and
by respecting their workers medical needs. All workers must follow the health
and safety act to make sure that their workplace is not dangerous; otherwise,
it is dangerous to the public.

 

2.      
Electricity at work regulations EAWR 1989 (Commercial) 

Electricity at
work regulation is to protect a worker from death or an injury from electrical
devices in a work place. All portable electrical equipment must be tested and
inspected regally (commonly every 12 months). This inspection can be from
checking the cable and wires to a toaster, too seeing if all components works
in a PCB in a computer works. EAWR covers commercial premises but it does not
cover domestic premises. The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989
require those in control of all or part of an electrical system to ensure it is
safe to use and maintained in a safe condition.

 

 

3.      
Building Regulations Part P (Domestic)

The building regulation consists of how a
building is constructed. This can be ranging from the parts of the building to
the end of the construction. These are approved documents, which carry out to
meet both domestic and commercial building works.

 

What is Part
P electrical?

Part P was
introduced into the building regulations in 2005 by the government. It was new
electrical safety rules which must apply to all domestic homes in England and
wales which they must comply to. But then only 14% of the public are known to
what Part P is, which is a very minor amount compared to the amount of people
who are aware of Gas safety which is around 45%. The lack of awareness in
England and wales shows that government need to take initiative and improve
public knowledge. Part P was introduced to protect people from any form of
electrical mishaps and to make sure that only people qualified can carry out
electrical work in the home. This also applies to those who have taken a part p
course as a part of their qualifications.

 

How does Part
P apply to you?

Part p applies
to those that live in domestic homes, flats and those living in properties with
a communal area. It also applies to electrical installation where the business
shares an electrical supply with a home, for example houses on top of shops or
stores. It’s important to understand what type of electrical work needs doing.
There are two types of work: notifiable and minor work. Any type of electrical
work must comply with Part P. This is important because if Part P hasn’t been
complied with then that is a criminal offense and your home insurance will be
invalid.

 

Notifiable

The wiring of a new
circuit
Full house rewire
New full electrical
installation  on a new build
The replacement of a
consumer unit (fuse box)
Any addition or alteration
to existing circuits in a special location

 

Minor

•       
Work that is not in a space surrounding water
(e.g. shower/bath or swimming pool) and consists of: adding lighting points to
an existing circuit.

•       
Replacing damaged cable for a single circuit
only.

•       
Installing outside lights or sockets from an
existing circuit

•       
Replacing socket outlets, control switches etc.

 

4.      
Electricity Safety, Quality and Continuity
Regulations 2002 (Commercial)

Control of substances of hazardous of health
regulation help you protect yourself from hazardous substances. You can help
prevent your workers getting injured by knowing what hazardous substance it is,
doing a risk assessment, providing control measures, keeping control of all
measurements, providing information, instruction and training for the employees
and others, providing monitoring and health surveillance in appropriate cases
and planning for emergencies. As of new
technology discovering harmful substances that be used to benefit the
contractor, which leads to harm to the employees, contractors and other people.

 

Non-statutory regulations

 

1.       BS7671:2008
(Domestic but can be used for commercial)

BS7671 2008+A3 2015 is a book that has the
requirements for electrical installation. This consists of how to meet this
different requirement for all the different kinds of Electricity at Work
Regulation 1989 (EAWR). Anyone working on a building should have a good
knowledge of the book because it talks about the installation and maintained of
all the different types of wiring in buildings. It is a national standard that
BS7671 must have domestic and commercial writing in it.

 

2.       Health
and Safety Documents such as GS38

GS38 2015 is fourth edition of the guidance
notes which was published in 2015. The book consists of electrical test
equipment on low voltage electrical systems. This guidance note is aimed for
people who use electrical test equipment on low voltage electrical systems and
equipment, for example:   electricians,
electrical contractors, test supervisors, technicians, managers, tradespeople,
appliance retailers/repairer. Who use electrical test equipment on low voltage
electrical systems and equipment. This fourth edition is updated to include
current test equipment; the guidance has not fundamentally changed from the
previous version.

 

3.       IETs
Guidance notes

These eight
publications are designed to provide more detailed guidance about specific
areas on BS 7671. In order, each publication covers:

•       
Guidance Note 1: Selection and erection

•       
Guidance Note 2: Isolation and switching

•       
Guidance Note 3: Inspection and testing

•       
Guidance Note 4: Protection against fire

•       
Guidance Note 5: Protection against electric
shock

•       
Guidance Note 6: Protection against overcurrent

•       
Guidance Note 7: Special locations

•       
Guidance Note 8: Earthing and bonding

 

4.       IET
related publications and documents (On-site guide)

The On-Site Guide is one of a number of
publications offered by the IET to provide guidance on certain aspects of BS
7671.

Its scope generally follows that of BS 7671 and also includes some material
that is not included in BS 7671. It provides the background to the intentions
of BS 7671 and gives other sources of information as well. It does not,
however, ensure compliance with BS 7671, as it is a simple guide to the
requirements of BS 7671. So, electrical installers and/or designer should
therefore always consult BS 7671 to satisfy themselves of compliance.

It cannot be guaranteed that BS 7671
complies with all relevant statutory regulations. It is, therefore, essential
to establish which statutory and other appropriate regulations apply and to
install accordingly. For example, an installation in licensed premises may have
requirements that differ from, or are additional to, BS 7671 and these must
take precedence.

 

5.      
NICEIC’s guidance (Inspection, testing
and certification)

The
aim of this publication is to promote best practice by providing electrical
contractors and others with practical advice, guidance and answers to a number
of questions that commonly arise during the inspection and testing of
electrical installation work, or during the preparation of the associated
certificates and reports.

It
essentially complements Part 7 Inspection and testing of BS 7671 and the
information and advice provided in other authoritative publications such as
IET’s Guidance Note 3. It covers the general requirements relating to the
inspection and testing of electrical installations forming part of TN-C-S, TN-S
and TT systems in the UK, but not specialised electrical installations such as
fire alarm and emergency lighting systems, or installations in hazardous areas.

The book also assumes that all persons
undertaking such work already have acquired the necessary knowledge,
understanding and skill, and are properly equipped, to undertake such work
without putting themselves and others at risk. It is therefore not intended to
be an instruction booklet for untrained and inexperienced persons.

 

Comparison between statutory and non-statutory regulations

A statutory requirement is a requirement written into a law passed by a
legislative body, while non-statutory requirements are those requirements made
by a government agency in accordance with the law. A legislature gives agencies
the right to make regulations.

 

 

Circuit protection methods

 

1.      
Fuses

This is one of the basic types of circuit
protection. This works by destroying itself to break the circuit when current
exceeds the rating of the fuse. Once a fuse has blown, it must be replaced. In
old equipment, the fuse might just be a length of appropriate fuse fixed
between two screw terminals. These are becoming rare because if these are
present usually indicates to update your installations.

 

Modern fuses are normally incorporated
within a sealed ceramic cylindrical body and the whole cartridge needs to be
replaced if the fuse happens to blow.

 

Cartridge fuses are used in older type
consumer units, fused sockets, fused plugs etc.

 

2.      
Miniature circuit breakers (MCB)

MCBs are used in consumer units and are an
alternative to fuses. They are switches which turn off when an overload is
detected in the ciruit. The advantage of MCBs over fuses are that the MCB can
trip and be reset easily without destroying it and it also has a more accurate
tripping value.

 

3.      
Residual current devices (RCD)

This is a modern alternative to earth
leakage circuit breakers and fuses in the consumer unit. This RCD trips when
they can detect any current imbalance between the live and the neutral wires
above the stated trip value (this is usually stated typically around 30mA)

 

They can be wired to protect either a
single circuit or a number of circuits. The benefit of it only overlooking one
circuit is that if the RCD happens to trip it will only cut off power to that
protected circuit and not a number of circuits around the house.

 

RCDs come in different variations for
example:

 

Inside Consumer units – An RCD can come hard
wired in units, this is where the outputs and inputs are wired into the unit.
This is ideal for a workshop where all the sockets within can be protected.
Each individual circuit taken from the RCD is also protected by an MCB to an
appropriate value.

 

Protected outlets – This can be fitted as a
direct replacement to a previous conventional outlet socket.

 

A plug-in unit – This can convert any
socket into a protected circuit. This can give good flexibility.

 

Reduce the risk of electric shock

 

Protective earthing

Protective earthing confirms that the circuit protective device will detach
the supply in the event of a fault and limit the rise in potential, above Earth
potential, of any exposed conductive parts during the fault.  

Protective
bonding

Protective bonding is required to minimise any potential difference
between exposed conductive parts and extraneous conductive parts during a
fault. The outcome of bonding these two parts together is to equalise potential
and not to carry fault current; however, in some cases, bonding conductors may
carry fault current where they form a parallel earth return path to the source
of supply during the loss of a neutral conductor in a PME supply.

This highlights that the term ‘Earth bonding’ should not be used when
applying earthing or protective bonding.

Examples of extraneous conductive parts that may require bonding
include:

water
installation pipes;
gas installation
pipes;
other
installation pipework and ducting;
central heating
and air-conditioning services; and
exposed metal
structural parts of a building.?

Automatic
disconnection in the event of a fault

ADS in the event of a fault is achieved when the circuit protective
device operates within the required time period for a given supply system. This
is dependent on circuit design parameters and limits, which are not the focus
of this article. In TN and TT systems an overcurrent protective device or an
RCD may be used to provide circuit fault protection. There are specific
requirements when using RCDs for fault protection that should be adhered to.
Reference to RCDs is made in Regulation 411.4.4 for TN systems and TT systems
are referenced in Regulations 411.5.2 /411.5.3.

In certain circumstances, RCDs are also used for additional protection
where more onerous situations are present, see Regulation 411.3.3. Relevant
sections of Part 7 also stipulate the use of RCDs, when required, in special
locations. Understanding the different types of RCD is now important as new
inclusion to BS 7671, Section 722, includes specific reference to RCDs of types
‘A’ and ‘B’.

Once all the basic and fault protection requirements for ADS have been
met we can say that the electrical circuit/installation/system has shock
protection.

Double or reinforced insulation

This type of shock protection is not very common and requires that only
equipment that is of a class II construction, which has double insulation or
reinforced insulation, is to be used in the installation. To that end only
equipment with no exposed conductive parts that may become live in the event of
a fault can be used.

Double insulation uses basic protection provided by basic insulation
and fault protection is provided by supplementary insulation.

Reinforced insulation is where the protection is provided by single or
basic insulation but has the same protective properties as double insulation.