developed to be used for machining and shaping many materials such as steel,
metal, plastic, wood. Its share in total steel production is 8%.Tool steels;
are much richer in content than other steel groups due to their chemical
composition, properties, application areas and characteristics expected of them
in working conditions.
General Properties of Tool Steels
• Clean and
• High abrasion
• High tensile
• High hardness
hardness distribution after heat treatment.
Tool steels according to usage area and
1. High speed Tool Steels
T-type and M-type tool steels are
used to cut tools in situations where strength and hardness must be maintained
at high temperatures.
High speed tool steels are materials that are
talented of raising shavings even at high cutting speeds and are capable of
maintaining their hardness at high temperatures for a long time.In order to
obtain these properties, it is necessary to add the alloying elements and to
provide suitable heat treatment conditions at suitable ratios. Applicaions:Drill
bits,band saws, shear blade,cutting mold.
2.Hot-Working Tool Steels
Hot-working steel is an alloyed iron and non-ferrous
materials to be shaped by various methods such as injection, extrusion,
forging, cutting in high temperature conditions (300-600 ° C). It
is used for shaping metal-based raw materials at high temperature.Applications: molds
of metal materials for forging, casting, injection and extrusion, mold
and pipe press.
3.Cold-Work Tool Steels
Cold work tool steels are carbon content ranging from
0.3% to 2.5% and carbide-forming chromium,vanadium, molybdenum, tungsten,nickel
and manganese as alloy element. It has high initial
hardnesses and this hardness drops rapidly when it exceeds 200 ° C. For
this reason, the process is used in the machining of the workpieces working at
temperatures of about 200 ° C and below.Applications:Cutting Tools, Sinter
and pressing tools.
4. Water-hardening group
W-group steel is actually high-carbon flat carbon
steel. This set of steel is the most used tool steel due to its low cost
compared to other steel steels. Cold heading dies are typically applications.
5.Shock-Resistant Tool Steels
Shock-resisting group has high shock resistance and
good hardenability. This group designed to resist shock at both low and high
temperatures. Also Shock-resisting group has a very high impact toughness and
relatively low abrasion resistance.
6. Special purpose group /
Plastic Mold Steel
steels are used to make molds for molding plastics and rubber.
(L)Low-alloy type tool
steels are usually reserved for special applications.
Special steels include a wide range of ferrous alloys with special handling properties that stand out in terms of corrosion resistance, abrasion resistance and toughness, high strength or magnetic properties.
Maraging steels are low carbon
alloys containing high amounts of nickel (15 to 25%) and less cobalt, molybdenum
and titanium. Sometimes chromium is added for corrosion resistance. They are
suitable for heat treatment. Heat treatment causes very high strength with good
toughness. Tensile strengths of 2000 MPa and 10% elongation are not unusual.
Applications include fuzzers, machines, molds and other cases where these
properties are necessary and justify the high cost of the alloy.
These steels have extremely low carbon levels (0.005% C)
resulting from the combination of alloying elements, such as niobium and
titanium, with C and the steel containing almost no interstitial atoms. The
result is even more ductility than low C steels. Applications include deep
drawing operations in the automotive industry.