The Science behind soundSound is vibrations that travel through the air or water and can be heard when they reach a person’s ear. Sound is generated when air vibrates, vibrations in the air are known as traveling longitudinal waves which we can hear. When humans speak we use a number of parts in our body such as our stomach muscles, lungs, voice box(larynx) , tongue, teeth, lips and even our nose, our brain coordinates all of these together to produce sound.PerceptionPerception of sound means how we hear it. Hearing different sounds is determined in a number of different ways such as pitch, loudness, duration and timbre.Pitch is how high or low a sound is.Loudness is how loud or soft a sound is.Duration is how long or short a sound is.Timbre is the quality of different sounds e.g the tone of a instrument or a voice.UltrasoundUltrasound is sound waves that have frequencies that we cannot hear as they are beyond the audible limit of what we can hear. Ultrasound is very useful for medical diagnostics e.g sonograms.Here is a picture showing the uses of ultrasound. Source https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sound#/media/File:Ultrasound_range_diagram.svgAs we can see ultrasound devices operates with frequencies 20Hz to 200MHz. Hertz(Hz) is the SI unit of sound frequency. Hz mostly determines the pitch of sound.SocietyHow we use soundAs a society we use sound in a number of different ways such as talking and communicating to each other SONAR in submarines and Ultrasound.Communicating with voice – Using voice is probably one of the most important ways of communication as we use it in everyday life to have conversations with people and to work effectively in a work environment. SONAR – SONAR is short for Sound navigation and ranging it’s a technique that uses sound to navigate,communicate and detect objects like vessels underwater. SONAR is mostly used in submarine navigation. SONAR works by making use of echoes, it sends sound off to nearby areas and those sound waves bounce off those objects and some reflect back and example of this is hearing our own voice in canyon when we shout.Ultrasound – As we covered earlier in this report ultrasound is sound waves that have frequencies that we cannot hear as they are beyond the audible limit of what we can hear. Ultrasound has a lot of different uses which we use in society such as medicine. In medicine they use ultrasound imaging or sonography which uses frequencies up to 4 gigahertz.Ultrasonic imaging can be used for stuff like industrial non destructive testing, medical uses and quality control for items.EnvironmentIn the environment animals use sound in many different ways such as warning others to stay out of their territory, to attract a mate, to communicate, to sense predator and prey and to spread location of food sources.Another animal using sound to its advantage is the bat, bats use echolocation to navigate in dark as its better than using their eyes, they do this by sending out soundwaves where they are travelling when the sound waves hit something it produces echoes which tells the bat there is something there. Bats are not the only animal that use echolocation dolphins, whales and a few birds use it as well. Birds use sound to communicate to each other, birds don’t really have a language but rather communicate using sound gestures such as singing, squeaks squawks, clicks, whines, whistles, howls, honks and lots more however not all birds use voice as their main method of communicating. They also use sound when mating as a form of competition against the other birds looking to mate they also do this as a sign to the female birds. Birds also use territorial sounds, alarm calls and sounds to distinguish between different groups. Monkeys use these methods a lot such as if there was something dangerous on the ground a monkey would use an alarm call and all the monkeys would climb up the trees to a safe place.