The New Scientific Theories During the Scientific Revolution According to the website https://www.space.com/15684-nicolaus-copernicus.html , that I used for my research, a Polish scientist named Nicolaus Copernicus, from the the 1500’s, was the man who presented the theory that planets circled around the sun, rather than Earth being at the center of the universe. However, Copernicus’ discoveries still had its problems. Copernicus taught that planets moved in circles, but in the 1600s, Johannes Kepler discovered that they actually moved in ellipses. To learn about Johannes Kepler, I read the website https://www.space.com/15787-johannes-kepler.html . According to that website, Kepler’s teachings of planetary motion were called Kepler’s laws. Today we use Kepler’s laws to direct satellites and space stations. One of Kepler’s laws, known as Kepler’s First Law, stated that planets travel in elliptical paths. The Second Law explains that a line connects the Sun to the planets and that it goes over a certain amount of area in the same amount of time. Kepler’s Third Law, states that the time two planets take to orbit the sun, is the same amount of distance from the planet to the sun. Kepler worked very hard to find out why Mars moved backwards instead of forwards, as all the other planets did. Then he realized that two planets, that moved on ellipses, would create the impression of Mars’ backward movement in the sky. He also discovered that the farther away planets are from the sun, the slower they move. Although Kepler is best known for his discoveries about planetary motion, he also made several other discoveries. He was the first to discover what controls vision, and that using both of our eyes allows us to see different distances in objects. He was the creator of eyeglasses for near and farsightedness. He even invented the Keplerian telescope. He also described how magnification works, how a telescope works, and he found out how reflection works. According to the website https://www.space.com/15589-galileo-galilei.html , that I read while researching Galileo Galilei, I learned that he investigated more about the telescope and the laws of motion. This led him to learning more about the world and universe. Galileo did not believe in Aristotle’s belief that ‘the more an object weighs, the faster it falls’, so he decided to do an experiment on this theory himself. He came to the conclusion that all objects have the same acceleration no matter what their mass was. He discovered that when something is thrown in the air, it travels on a parabola. He also created the first pendulum clock, and the proportional compass. With the help of the telescope, he was the first person to see craters on the moon, track the stages of Venus, and discover sunspots. Although he made many discoveries with the telescope, he is best known for discovering the four moons of Jupiter, Io, Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto. He learned more about Jupiter’s moons, with the help of his invention called the Celatone. The Celatone is a type of headgear that has a telescope on one of the eyeholes, so he could see up in space. After discovering the moons, he wanted to measure the distance between each satellite and the planet Jupiter. So he invented the micrometer; it would fit onto the telescope and could slide along the tube of the telescope. So, with one eye, he could look through the telescope, and with the other, he could look at the micrometer. The information I found while reading this website https://www.universetoday.com/38643/what-did-isaac-newton-discover/ , helped me learn more about Sir Isaac Newton. Sir Isaac Newton is best known for his discoveries on gravity. However, he also developed the Three Laws of Motion’. The first law illustrates that “An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion continues in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.” The second law explains that to move an object with a large amount of mass, you will need a great amount of force to move it. The third law teaches that “for every action, there is an equal but opposite reaction”. He designed a law of Universal Gravitation as well. Newton also discovered white light, and the color spectrum. He made the discovery that objects don’t color themselves, but that objects are colored because they interact with already colored light. This is called Newton’s theory of color. During his studies of color, he discovered chromatic aberration. This caused him to create the first reflecting telescope, also known as the Newtonian telescope. When I went to the Science Museum in Chicago Illinois, I was able to witness Newton’s discovery of the color spectrum, inside the Color from Light exhibit. They had a control panel where you could control how much of a certain color you could take away from the room. Once you took away a color, or absorbed the color, another color took its place. For example, once we absorbed the blue color, everything in the room that was once blue, was now green. He also discovered how things cool, the speed of sound, and Newtonian fluid. Like Copernicus, he also believed that the Sun was at the center of the planetary system, not the Earth. He was the one that predicted that the Earth was a sphere. His inventions include three types of telescopes, such as the refracting telescope, the radio telescope, and the reflecting telescope. The significance of all these discoveries and theories, helps us today because now we are able to discover and learn new things about our universe, mathematics, and science. We are able to learn more about space, because of the telescope. The discoveries that Nicolaus Copernicus made, has a big impact on our astronomy today, because of his observations about the planets circling around the sun. Thanks to Johannes Kepler, we have eyeglasses for people that can not see very well, and we are able to know how reflection works. Galileo Galilei helped us learn about the laws of motion, Jupiter’s moons, and he helped further the use of the telescope. Galileo Galilei proved that Copernicus’s theory was true, when not everyone believed it was true, so he gives a great impact on what we know about space. Sir Isaac Newton, helped us learn about more about Earth and space. He even wrote a book called the Principia, which talked about Earth and our solar system. Without Sir Isaac Newton, we might’ve not known about his discoveries in color; and without all of the scientific theories, we may not have known, or been able to learn, all we know today.