The The report presents a computer-based test named

 The YP Leadership & Thinking Style Test

Abstract

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The report presents a computer-based test named “YP
Leadership and Thinking Styles Test” built in Visual Basic which contains 35
items. The items of the test were derived from the split brain and leadership
theories and research evidence.  The test
is developed to help school teachers understand the thinking and learning
readiness levels of their students in the process of providing effective
teaching and learning activities. Besides education institutions, this test is
useful for private sector organizations leaders to better understand and become
aware of their strengths and weaknesses as leaders.

Problem
Statement

Problem: Teachers must be
effective in all areas of instruction by bringing attention and focus to
brain-based learning. Teaching without knowledge of thinking and learning may
reduce its effectiveness. They should also be concerned with physical education
being purposeful about integrating movement activities into everyday learning
and incorporating sensory contributions. These are major problems because these
students are in school and soon will be entering the workforce or complete
their further studies in college. They must be prepared for the real world.
There are many obstacles in adulthood that these students will face and
teachers must work towards establishing a connection between physical activity
and the readiness to learn. This study investigates how a cooperative learning
builds relationship of students and how instructional practices are given by
teachers to transfer knowledge and skills.

Method:
An experimental method will be used in the study. The teacher must study
brain-based teaching strategies and learning by performing leadership and
thinking styles test methods incorporating movement activities into daily
practice and collecting data. At the conclusion of this implementation, the
teacher will have successfully implemented strategies that will benefit each
student’s goal of learning by being actively engaged in each class assignment. Students
will learn to make the relationship between actively moving and learning
curriculum by active participation in class. That way they can increase brain
power and readiness to learn and retain.

Research
Questions

The study is to answer whether there is relationship
between thinking, learning and the communication style of the students &
teachers.

 In brief, the
student’s communication style during communication activities is assumed to
have relationship with both thinking style and learning style. This study seeks
to answer the following questions:

·        
To what extent does teaching help
student’s learning style preference leading to greater student satisfaction and
improvement in skills associated with that preference, lack of progress in
skills associated with the opposite preference?

·        
How helpful to students is discussion of
learning styles in class?

·        
How are the communication, thinking and
learning styles of the students?

·        
To what extent is the relationship of
thinking and learning styles and the communication style of the students?

·        
Is there a preference of thinking and
learning style in case of performing students?

Research
Objectives

In order to reach the objectives of this research,
we need to identify the relationship established between thinking &
learning style. Teaching and thinking style of teachers & learning style of
students regarding their academic performances. This study is organized in
three distinct stages:

·        
The identification of relationship
between thinking and teaching style of teachers.

·        
The identification of relationship
between thinking and learning style of students.

·        
The identification of academic performance
of students in the classroom.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Multimedia
Instructional Design: An Empirical Research

Abstract

An effective multimedia instructional design will be
developed named “Al-Aqsa” to teach Holy Quran to the student’s in primary
schools. The research range will involve the teaching of the Holy Quran to
students who are in the 5th grade at primary school in Pakistan. The main
objective of this study is to illustrate an efficient learning method that
could help students learn the Holy Quran effectively and efficiently to the
extent that they are able to recite, write and memorize it. This research will
utilize the ADDIE model as a concept in teaching the Holy Quran to students.
The study will apply instructional design models to teach the Holy Quran. There
are many other teaching aids in Pakistan but this research will use them as a
support to develop the Multimedia instruction to teach the Holy Quran.

Background

It a great challenge to create multimedia tools for
students of young age. It means more than letting learners make choices among
predefined options. Multimedia is less restricted than written text. Many
people tend to learn and understand text better with broader media support for
its interpretation. This study identified that the traditional way of teaching
is not effective in schools. Students need to get higher benefit from the
advancement in information technology and the emergence of multimedia
courseware which becomes the main way for teaching young ages different courses
and not restricted to languages but it is expanded  to all kind of sciences and even religious
courses such as Holy Quran. The study will utilize ADDIE model because it
provides dynamic & flexible guideline for building efficient training and
performance support tools for the research.

When computers are used in teaching, multimedia
courseware becomes more effective and interesting for students. They tend to
learn fast. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of multimedia
courseware based on the multimedia learning methods in the Pakistan’s teaching
system based on the mentioned evaluation, we will develop an effective
courseware model as a solution to the problem of traditional method of learning
and teaching the of Holy Quran.

Studies found that the application of Multimedia
Courseware in advanced education assists in improving the effectiveness and
efficiency of teaching, when they are compared to traditional teaching methods
and Computer Aided Instruction (CAI). Scientific education theories have been
utilized to lead CAI courseware and it is suitable for teachers as well as
students.

Research
Objectives

·        
To evaluate the quality of teaching and
learning of existing multimedia Arabic courseware available in the market.

·        
To identify the main requirements for
teaching the Holy Quran using multimedia courseware in primary schools in
Pakistan.

·        
To develop an instructional design model
and a courseware called (A.F.C) which is self-regulated that could assist the
students in their comprehension and reciting skills. This model will enhance
student’s learning skills and improve their understanding.

·        
To evaluate and validate the new ID
Model using Al-Aqsa multimedia courseware.

Research
Questions

·        
Why the current learning method using
Arabic multimedia courseware is not suitable to be used in Pakistan’s primary
schools to teach the Holy Quran?

·        
What are the requirements for teaching
the Holy Quran using multimedia courseware in primary schools?

·        
What are the types of learning model
that could be suitable for primary schools and enhances students understand
Holy Quran and improve their reciting skills?

·        
How the teaching and learning quality of
the new ID Model and Al-Aqsa multimedia courseware contributes to improve
student’s understanding to Holy Quran?

Multimedia

 Multimedia is
the combination of audio, pictures, animation, text, video and interactivity.
It is an important instrument to entertain students in classrooms. For example,
teachers use it to explain complex lessons like the science. They believe that
it assists the students in understanding science better and it helps teachers
to deliver the lessons effectively and efficiently.

Effects
of Multimedia

 Information
technology plays an important role in education. Computer assisted instruction
(CAI) such as multimedia or interactive software programs (ISP) provides
information in sequential modes to increase student’s knowledge. Therefore,
multimedia supports the transferring of knowledge sufficiently and offers good
environment to students to avoid feeling bored in classroom. It can also be
argued that IT supports students to receive knowledge effectively. In addition,
ISP enabled students to obtain knowledge and communicate with each other via
multimedia. The most significant impact of multimedia is the ability to
transform tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge so that it is easier to
transfer especially for students at primary schools. Students are satisfied
with multimedia and it increases their motivation whereas participation allows
them to maintain the process of learning for a long period of time compared
with traditional classroom methods.

Multimedia
and Teaching

The majority of teachers focus on information
technology to enhance the knowledge transfer environments. Hence, multimedia
was proposed as a new method to help students receive knowledge so that they
may enhance their performance, communication, and solve problems effectively.
Computers are also being used by students as an assistant tutor to develop
their skills, facilitate knowledge transfer and it also serves as a companion
to develop their thinking, creativity and skills. Computers also assist
navigation among students and teachers concerning the contents of multimedia
lessons that they would like to learn. It helps them to gain vital knowledge
and increases motivation to avoid difficulties in the learning process.

Multimedia
and Education

Multimedia applications are used in education to
transfer knowledge effectively and enhance the ability of teachers and learners
in their process. In terms of memorizing and recalling the information when
needed due to the ease of the approach which multimedia provides in teaching
through transferring knowledge. Teachers will track the lesson gradually so
they will not forget any part of the prescribed lessons while students will be
engaged with the content as it is presented visually using multimedia elements.
Multimedia in education is implemented in many different modes of learning such
as individual, classroom, group, distance and open learning.

Multimedia
and Knowledge

 Transferring
information and enhancing knowledge construction in learners effectively is the
main aims of Multimedia. This is done by presenting relevant materials in text
and images by helping learners to process the presented materials in meaningful
ways. There are five significant aids to multimedia learning which are quite
effective and powerful as supporting ways of transferring knowledge. In
knowledge management, multimedia plays an important role which can be used by
different entities in various places. Multimedia applications in knowledge
management allow employees and students to access, analyze, share, transfer and
present information obtained from multiple sources via various means. The usage
of multimedia provides opportunities for people to work independently and
collaboratively. Knowing and understanding the use of multimedia application
prepares students to use such technologies in their daily lives.

Multimedia
Learning Models

 There are
three models presented in this study; SECI, ADDIE and Instructional Design
Model.

·        
The SECI Model is a knowledge transfer
based model and it has diverse ways for knowledge creation and to manage the
process effectively and efficiently. SECI model contains combination; explicit
knowledge to explicit knowledge, externalization; tacit knowledge to explicit
knowledge, socialization and explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge.

·        
The ADDIE Model is an instructional
design model which provides step by step methods that assists in creating
training programs. Its components are as follows: Analysis, Design,
development, evaluation and implementation.

·        
The Instructional Design Model is
identified according to learning theories and the associated design to accomplish
the recognized research and learning objectives of students. The ID Model for
Planes and Lines in 3-Dimensions (3D) courseware lists media factors with 3D
model. The use of a 3D model along with instructional media supports the
learning theories in terms of visualization.

·        
The contents of the courseware are
separated into three major parts namely: Lessons, Overview, and then Questions.

 

Conclusion

Results from this study conclude that the
environment of multimedia learning such as Al-Aqsa courseware motivated
students to carry on learning the Holy Quran in the class. Student’s exposure
to the environment of multimedia also statistically will enhance the
performance of student’s in the final exam. These findings are supported by
several findings in the field of multimedia education. Results also will
suggest that the multimedia instruction design such as Al-Aqsa courseware will
enhance student’s motivation, satisfaction, confidence, attitude and perception
about learning the Holy Quran. This study will demonstrate that instructional
design such as Al-Aqsa courseware when embedded with state of the art
technology and combined with the latest theories with paradigms of teaching and
learning indeed will assist students to excel in their studies. It is interesting
to mention that this courseware will be incredibly effective in assisting
students to understand the concepts of the Holy Quran. Thus, the findings will
designate that the students in the constructivist setting using Al-Aqsa
courseware will be benefitted in comparison to traditional method.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BIG DATA
SECURITY

Abstract

The amount of data in world is growing day by day.
Data is growing because of use of internet, smart phone and social network. Huge
data is a collection of data sets which is very large in size as well as
complex. Normally size of the data is Petabyte and Exabyte. Traditional
database systems are not able to capture, store and analyze this large amount
of data. Big data analytics provide new ways for businesses and government to
analyze unstructured data. Now days, Big data is one of the most talked topic
in IT industry. It is going to play important role in future. In this article
various aspects of big data and a new system will be proposed for Security of
Big Data and finally present the future scope of Big Data.

Introduction

 The term Big
Data is now used almost everywhere in our daily life. Big Data came around 2005
which refers to a wide range of large data sets almost impossible to manage and
process using traditional data management tools due to their size but also
their complexity. It can be seen in the finance and business where enormous
amount of stock exchange, banking, online and onsite purchasing data flows
through computerized systems every day. It can also be seen in the life
sciences where big sets of data such as genome sequencing, clinical data and
patient data are analyzed and used to advance breakthroughs in science in
research. Other areas of research where Big Data is of central importance are
astronomy, oceanography and engineering among many others. With the advancement
in technology, this data is being recorded and meaningful value is being
extracted from it.

The 3Vs that define Big Data are Variety, Velocity
and Volume.

·        
Volume:
There has been an exponential growth in the volume of data that is being dealt
with. Data is not just in the form of text data but also in the form of videos,
music and large image files. Data is now stored in terms of Terabytes and even
Petabytes in different enterprises. With the growth of the database, we need to
review the architecture and applications built to handle the data.

·        
Velocity:
Data is streaming in at exceptional speed and must be dealt with in a timely
manner. RFID tags, sensors and smart metering are driving the need to deal with
torrents of data in near real time. Reacting quickly enough to deal with data
velocity is a challenge for most organizations.

·        
Variety:
Today, data comes in all types of formats. Structured, numeric data in
traditional databases. Unstructured text documents, email, video, audio, stock
ticker data and financial transactions. We need to find ways of governing,
merging and managing these diverse forms of data.

BIG
DATA TECHNOLOGY: Operations Vs Analytical

The Big Data landscape can be divided into two main
categories:

·        
Systems which provide operational
capabilities for real time, transactional/interactive situations where data is
captured and stored.

·        
The other type is systems that provide
analysis capabilities for retrospective and complex analysis of the data that
has been stored.

Big
Data Analytics

 Big data
analytics refers to the process of collecting, organizing and analyzing large
sets of data to discover patterns and other useful information. With the help
of Big Data analytics, organizations use the large amounts of data made
available to them to identify patterns and extract useful information. Big Data
analysis not only helps us to understand the information contained in the data
but also identify the information that is most important to the organization
and future decisions. The most important goal of Big Data Analytics is to
enable organizations to make better decisions. Data Scientists and other
analytics professionals deal with huge amounts of transactional data. Big data
can be analyzed with the software tools commonly used as part of advanced
analytics disciplines such as predictive analytics, data mining, text analytics
and statistical analysis.. The newer technologies involved in Big Data
Analytics involve Hadoop and related tools such as YARN, MapReduce, Spark, Hive
and Pig as well as NoSQL databases.

 

Stages
Involved in Big Data

·        
Data
Acquisition: The first step in Big Data is acquiring
the data itself. With the introduction of smart devices which are used with a
wide array of sensors continuously generate data. Most of this data is not
useful and can be discarded, however due to its unstructured form selectively
discarding the data presents a challenge. This data becomes stronger in nature
when it’s merged with other valuable data and superimposed. Due to the interconnectedness
of devices over the World Wide Web, data is increasingly being collated and
stored in the cloud.

·        
Data
Extraction: All of the data generated and acquired
is not of use. It contains a large amount of redundant or unimportant data. For
example, a simple CCTV camera, constantly polls sensor to gather information of
the user’s movements. When the user is in a state of inactivity the data
generated by the activity sensor is redundant and of no use.

·        
Data
Collation: Data from a singular source often is not enough for
analysis or prediction. More than one data sources are often combined to give a
bigger picture to analyze. For example, a health monitor application often
collects data from the heart rate sensor to summarize the health information of
the user. In the scheme of Big Data convergence of data to form a bigger
picture is often considered a very important part of processing.

·        
Data
Structuring: Once all the data is aggregated, it is
very important to present and store data for further use in a structured
format. The structuring is important so queries can be made on the data. Data
structuring employs methods of organizing the data in a particular schema.
Various new platforms, such as NoSQL, can query even on unstructured data and
are being increasingly used for Big Data Analysis.

·        
Data
Visualization: Once the data is structured, queries
are made on the data and the data is presented in a visual format. Data
Analysis involves targeting areas of interest and providing results based on
the data that has been structured. For example, data containing average
temperatures are shown alongside water consumption rates to calculate a
relation in between them.

·        
Data
Interpretation: The ultimate step in Big Data processing
includes interpretation and gaining valuable information from the data that is
processed.

 

Security
and Big Data

 The advent of
Big Data has presented nee challenges in terms of Data Security. There is an
increasing need of research in technologies that can handle the vast volume of
Data and make it secure efficiently. Current Technologies for securing data are
slow when applied to huge amounts of data.

Challenges

·        
The first challenge for organizations is
to choose and select the relevant and important data. With such high volumes of
data, it becomes important for organizations to able to separate the relevant
data.

·        
The second challenge is that in
organizations many data points are not connected. This problem of connectivity
is a severe hurdle. Big Data is all about collection of data from various
transaction points. Organizations need to be able to manage data from across
its enterprises.

·        
To leverage Big Data, one has to work
across departments such as IT, Engineering and Finance. Thus the ownership and
procurement of this data has to be a cooperative endeavor across these
departments. There is a security angle related to Big Data collection. This is
a major obstacle preventing companies from taking full advantage of Big Data
Analysis.

·        
Several issues will have to be addressed
to capture the full potential of big data. Policies related to privacy,
security, intellectual property and liability will need to be addressed in a
big data world.

·        
Organizations need not only to put the
right talent and technology in place but also structure workflows and
incentives to optimize the use of big data.

Conclusion

Big Data is changing the way we perceive our world.
The impact big data has created and will continue to create can ripple through
all facets of our life. Global Data is on the rise, by 2020, we would have
quadrupled the data we generate every day. This data would be generated through
a wide array of sensors we are continuously incorporating in our lives. Through
the use of smart bulbs to smart cars, everyday devices are generating more data
than ever before. These smart devices are incorporated not only with sensors to
collect data all around them but they are also connected to the grid which
contains other devices. A Smart Home today consists of an all encompassing
architecture of devices that can interact with each other via the vast internet
network. Big Data is also changing things in the business world. Companies are
using big data analysis to target marketing at very specific demographics.
Focus Groups are becoming increasingly redundant as analytics firms such as
McKinsey are using analysis on very large sample bases that have today been
made possible due to advancements in Big Data. Big Data does not arise out of a
vacuum it is recorded from some data generating source. For example, consider
our ability to sense and observe the world around us, from the heart rate of an
elderly citizen and presence of toxins in the air we breathe to the planned square
kilometer array telescope which will produce up to 1 million terabytes of raw
data per day. Similarly, scientific experiments and simulations can easily produce
petabytes of data today. There is immense scope in Big Data and a huge scope
for research and Development.