The the ecological, social, political, ideological, and religious

The translation
theorist J. Catford (1965, p.7)1 as
regards translation  argues that, “Since
translation has to do with language, the analysis and description of
translation processes must make considerable use of categories set up for the
description of language. It must, in other words, draw upon a theory of
language- a general linguistic theory.”

Translation according
to Eugene Nida’s (1964, p.68)2 can be
outlined as follows:

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a) Shifting the meaning
from source language to receptor language on a disciplined, structured simple
level; and

b) Generating the
stylistically and semantically equivalent expression in the receptor language.

c) Reducing the source
text to its structurally simplest and most semantically evident seeds;

De Beaugrande (1978, p.35) says that, “text linguists set up text types
each of which requires a different method of translating. They also highlight
the importance of ‘cohesive ties’, ‘structure’, ‘texture’, ‘intertextuality’,
etc. which can be considered useful and necessary, especially in the initial
stages of reading and analysis.”

            Accordingly, Chau (1984, p.136)
states that “translating is an intercultural operation which poses many serious
problems to the translator. These problems are the product of the many cultural
differences between the two languages concerned. They stem from differences in
the ecological, social, political, ideological, and religious aspects of the
lives of both cultures.”

            The theory of translating, according
to Nida (1969)3,
is comprised of the three procedures of analysis:

1.      deep structure,

2.      transfer,

3.      restructuring

Considering the
stage of deep structure, the second language text must be read and studied cautiously,
and meaning must be extracted. In the stage of transfer, the translator constantly
changes between the stage of analysis and that of restructuring. Restructuring
the message means making adjustments at grammatical and semantic levels.

            Moreover, he categorises theories
of translating into three main categories: Philological, Linguistic, and
Sociolinguistic. Philological theories of translating present
equivalence of literary texts by contrasting the second language and the target
language. Linguistic theories of translation rely on a comparison of linguistic
structures of source and receptor texts rather than on a comparison of literary
genres and stylistic features. Context of communication is considered in sociolinguistic
theory of translating.

           In conclusion, one can
surely say that the language is a
carrier of one’s culture, religion, belief, custom. Translation as a process is
not simple because it doesn’t only deal with the language, but it also stresses
culture in the text. When translating in a different language one needs to have
a different feel and nuance embedded more in culture than in literal meaning,
but we hope that this translation by Betim Muço will shed some light on some of
the linguistic and cultural issues of Albanians that might be encountered in
literary translation in general and from English into Albanian.

2.1 Language Studies and Translation

Translation has a well-established tradition and has been broadly
practiced throughout history, but in our dynamic world its role has become of supreme
importance. Nowadays, because of knowledge expansion and intensification of international
communication, the activity of translation has become critical. Attentiveness
in the area of translating is increased and in today human communication
depends greatly on translation, be it for different purposes like scientific,

1 Catford, J.C. (1965) A Linguistic Theory of Translation. London:
Oxford University Press.

2 Nida, E. (2004 1964) ‘Principles of Correspondence’ in Venuti, L.
(ed.) (2004) The Translation Studies Reader. 2nd edn. New York and London:
Routledge, pp. 68.

3 Nida, E. A., & Charles R. Taber. (1969, 2004). The theory and
practice of translation. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.