The solutions has its own strength and weakness,

The topic of mind and body of a human being raises a philosophical problem about the relationship and difference between these two things, which is recognized to be the oldest problem, known as the mind-body problem. The question of the existence and the connection of the mind and the body either separately or unitedly concern most of the philosophers and their arguments. Each argument made by a philosopher has its own theory and answer to the mind-problem, which help them explore the relation between the physical and the mental. The mind-body problem mainly has five solutions: dualism, monism, idealism, physicalism and non-dualism. Each one of the solutions has its own strength and weakness, which I will discuss about by giving evidence for the particular solution. Mind-body problem is the central issue of a branch in philosophy, the philosophy of mind, which inquires the nature of mind and its relation to the physical body. Different cultures have different views on mind and body. Different views and concepts are brought up as time has gone by. Each of the views has created a way of seeing the world and human beings differently. A main figure, who has a very different view upon how strong the relation between the mind and body is Plato. However, does the relationship between the mind and the body help us define who we really are? Out of which of these two things expresses our uniqueness as to being human? Does the mind only exist in the body? Or is it the other way around?  Dualism is a theory which states that the mind and the body are separate and are two different ‘things’. Dualism proposes the clear idea that the mind is distinct from the body and it is what expresses who we are because it makes a clear separation between the physical and the mental elements. It is an idea in which the body is tied along. Our physical body is huge and consists of many different parts, such as our head, hands, legs and the brain. Human beings think. They make decisions and judgments, but this would not be possible without the brain. The brain helps us think, but it does not do all of the thinking on its own. One of the brain’s function is to control the senses and the behaviour of the human. The brain is a material object, because it is a physical thing and because we can perceive it, so we make up our mind saying that it exists. Whereas, the mind on the other hand is not physical. We cannot see it, unlike the brain, therefore we come to a conclusion that the mind does not take up space. However, humans are capable of forming judgement and reason their existence. This act would not be possible without the mind, which does the thinking and is able to experience situations. Plato believed that the mind is a rational element, along with the soul and after a human being’s death, the immortal soul continues, which is the reason it is separate from the body. Dualism suggests that the mind controls the body and its actions, but the rational mind may be influenced by the body, in cases such as the dreams. A person may experience a different world through their journey of sleep. They might feel, taste, smell, see and touch things and experience things, which are not actually happening. Our physical body does not have to be involved in order for us to dream. But on the contrary, some people tend to sleep walk. While sleeping we are conscious, but the body itself is not aware of surroundings, however when a person is sleepwalking, complex behaviour can be performed by the person without actually feeling it, and it is controlled by our mind. Usually the sleepwalker does not even remember the whole event. Therefore, mind can move the matter. The second solution comes from the theory of monism. Monism simply is the view that human mind and body are made up of a single substance. Monism is the exact opposite of dualism and states that both the mental and the physical are united into one. The theory of monism is favored by people who believe that for the mind to operate as a whole, the physical body is imperative. This view can be broken down into three smaller parts: physicalism and idealism. According to physicalism, all sort of things which exist in nature are physical, made from physical matters. Explaining that even mind is a physical phenomena formed from the physical body. Oppositely we have idealism, which is similar to immaterialistic monism and it is a theory that states reality is constructed mentally and is dependent only on spiritual entities such as the soul. A real life situation could be a patient with a severe trauma to the brain which has lead to brain death. In brain death, the person’s brain cannot function any longer and the mind is unconscious and unable to think but through the usage of life support machines the rest of the body is still alive. Body is the base in this situation, because the brain is not capable of carrying out any functions. We get all good stuff by the body. We perceive and feel the world. Without the body the person would be useless as its brain is dead, but without the mind they can still be a donor, and help somebody else. Robots do not have minds, but they too are not useless. They are programmed in such a way that allows them to work and do useful things. A deduction could be clearly made from the examples above, that after there was damage to the brain, it directly leads to the damage of the person’s mind and its identity. Every object in the world has its own special quality, its own property that gives it its description, but if we assume that the mind and body are united then how are we to express their uniqueness?