The term omics refers to a field of biological studies ending in -omics and describes the collective technologies that are used to explore the roles, relationships, and actions of the various types of molecules that make up the cells of an organism.(Debnath M., Prasad G.B., Bisen P.S. 2010) .These technologies include:Genomics-the study of genes and their function, proteomics, the study of proteins, metabolomics, the study of molecules involved in cellular metabolism transcriptomics-the study of the mRNA transcripts ,glycomics- the study of cellular carbohydrates and lipomics, the study of cellular lipids.
The primary purpose of omics technology is the non-targeted identification of gene products ( transcripts, proteins and metabolites present in biological samples and has many applications.
Metabolomics is one of the newest branches of omics technology in nutraceutical research. The metabolome can be defined as the complete set of metabolites synthesised by an organism. The metabolites represent the end products of metabolic reactions and therefore represent the interactions of genes and the cell’s environment
Nutritional metabolomics has the potential to provide insight into biochemical changes after dietary intervention and to impact food safety issues pertaining to genetically modified food. This approach is therefore quite useful in identifying the effect of nutraceutical intervention on cellular function. .The technique has previously been used to show that soy isoflavones induced changes in plasma components in premenopausal women under controlled environmental conditions ( Debmalya Barh, Kenneth Blum, Margaret A. Madigan 2016 )
Additionally metabolomics offers plant breeders new technology for crop enhancement Metabolomics-assisted breeding, in conjunction with genomics and proteomics, offer tools for nutraceutical breeding. (Saxena A, Cramer CS 2013) Techniques , such as, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, chromatography, etc., have been utilized to study the impact of time, stress, and environmental conditions and to analyze hundreds of metabolites simultaneously . Saxena A, Cramer CS 2013 reports that this enormous amount of information could be utilized to bio-refine current cultivars by applying selection pressure, and to optimize nutraceutical breeding.
Proteomics has been used in phytochemical research to analyzes changes in proteomes in the presence of phytochemicals in order to discover their interactions. The findings indicating a direct interaction between phytochemicals and cellular signaling proteins in pathogenic pathways, the analysis from a proteomic perspective is essential for a comprehensive understanding of phytochemicals’ action mechanisms. By expediting the identification of molecular target proteins responsible for the action of phytochemicals, proteomics serves as a valuable tool toward understanding the health implication of phytochemicals and can further assess their potential application and utilization for the benefit of human health. In this chapter, we focus on the current proteomics approaches in phytochemical research for health and chronic diseases, including cancer, metabolic disease, and neurodegenerative diseases.(Jung Yeon Kwon, Sanguine Byun and Ki Won Lee 2015)