THE In this report i have focus on

segregation of Upper-class Muslims in India


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 there are three types of
segregated spaces in the urban sociology literature and these are- the enclave,
the citadel and the ghetto. While the ghetto come from high constraint, the
citadel is an attempt to exclude undesirable population and the enclave is a
intentional form of segregation. In report focuses on a specific type of neighbourhood
which contain these three types.


If you spent your Friday afternoon
in Aligarh, which is a northern Indian city. You can clearly feel an spiritually
enlightened experience of urban segregation for a student. In Most of the neighbourhoods
you would clearly see the quite busy and colourful urban life same as any other
day of week. Working people, rikshaw pullers, fruit sellers and business people
would all INDULGE in their daily activities and by doing this activity they
make street lively and full of noisy environment. But in some areas you would find
emptiness and silence. Most of the shops you will found close. It can take time
to realise that the neighbourhoods are from different communities and most of
them were Hindu. While others are Muslim. In this area afternoon of Friday are
devoted to pray. Here you can easily find contrast between two type of
neighbourhoods and it is very interesting in a way. And boundaries between
these two neighbourhoods are very well established. If you take tour of quite
muslim neighbourhoods you would notice that some of the areas are particularly
wealthy, it has large villas, well decorated fancy flats are there, with costly
cars parked in the side of the streets. While other areas are very poor and in
very bad condition. In those area houses are surrounded by trash and mud. And
there is similar contrast can be found in neighbourhood of hindus. Aligarh
reveals a visual overview of checkerboard pattern. This city is divided into
different types of neighbourhoods these are-Lower class muslim, upper-middle
class muslim, lower class hindu and upper-middle class hindu. Social and religious
difference can be map onto urban space in a very easy way in Aligarh. this city
is ideal to explore the complexity of class-based and religion based

In this report i have attempted
to focus on creation of different type of segregated spaces and division of Muslims
society which lives in highly educated area and what are their mentality towards
people whom they have separated.

In this report i have focus on
ethclass which is being forgotten in the Indian society and people have started
thinking that segregation of places and population is only thing to achieve
quality of life.

First of all i have gone through
characterising of segregate areas and fieldwork in a segregated city, what are
the reason for segregation, threefold segregation of two neighbourhoods, what
are the feelings of people after segregation and then final conclusion.

Characterizing segregated

In urban sociology there is a
major concern of segregation of minorities. So the main question is the
segregation of minorities is forced or voluntary. This basic question has
stemmed a long debate, which has been summarized by peter Marcuse in three-term
typology of segregated neighbourhoods: the enclave, the citadel and the ghetto.
These categories refer to segregated areas but there is difference in the
degree of willingness or constraint that is the reason of their formation. ghetto
is the result of forced segregation. According to Marcuse, ghetto is a
spatially concentrated area and it’s used to separate and to limit a particular
group of population held to be and treated as lower ranked or less important by
the dominant population of the society.

The ghettoized minority has no
control over its ethnic identity and is not able to change the way it has been
categorized by the wider part of the society. Its identity became inferior and
involuntary. its spatial clustering is restricted. Marcuse’s conceptualization
is quite similar as wacquant’s definition, in which the ghetto is characterized
as a bounded, ethically uniform socio-spatial formation which is put in a lower
position  by a negative type population. Ghetto
is created by cruel exercise of power. Ghetto is considered class based as well
as ethno-racial based exclusion. But poverty is not the characteristic
condition of the ghetto. ghetto can be multi class areas with different social
groups that share linked fate of ethno-racial spatial relegation.

The enclave refers to a
spatially concentrated area where member of a particular population group which
is defined by religion, ethnicity or otherwise, come together in a group to
enhance their economic, political, social or cultural development. Enclaves are
the places of residence of Minorities and these minorities are self segregate them
and not segregated by the white majority. In the case of citadel spatial
segregation is voluntary and it is beneficial to the minority. And it allows
the group to maintain its norms, social and cultural values. However, the difference between
the ghetto and the enclave remains not easy to understand since most of the
time, voluntary and forced dimension of segregation are very closed to each
other. Wacquant recalls that the ghetto is a institution having two contrasting
aspects, in which enforced confinement leads to rich internal understanding and
closeness. The ghetto and the enclave are different In kind. They represent two
type of segregation, the good and the bad. One is voluntary and one is imposed
forcefully. The ghetto is negative where as the enclave does not cause any
harm. The ghetto is forced and the enclave is voluntary. The ghetto is real and
the citadel is kind of symbolic. The ghetto cause harm it’s threatening but the
enclave is touristic.

has introduced a third category, which is the citadel. And this is defined as a
spatially concentrated area in which member of particular population group,
which is defined by its positon of superioty and power, status or wealth collected
as a group to protect and enhance their position. But the ghetto and the
enclave refers to settlements of ethno-racial groups. The citadel is class
based. It containts generally upper class and dominant and the minority
retreats into defensive spaces to protect their superior position. As a category,
the citadel can be used to characterized the recent gated communities that have
been grown in various part of world including India. The upper middle class
residents of citadel promote a narrow idea of urban space in which the poor
should be part of it. The residents of ghettos are generally dominated and
having exploited relationship to outside. Those in enclave are in between and
those who are in citadel are the top of the hierarchy. While the ghetto and the
enclave are seen as the two sides of the same coin.

The missing type: wealthy minority neighborhoods’-

1964, the term ethclass was born. This is a model that fused both ethnic and
class into a single concept. Ethnicity was defined as a horizontal division
running  across vertical class divisions so
each cell of the checkerboard would therby work as an ethclass. Every ethclass
has the potential for segregation of resident from other members of the same social
class on the basis of different ethnic and from the other members of same
ethnic group on the basis of social class. In the interaction between class and
race, one modality has been clearly missing and that is wealthy minority neighborhoods
which have combination of high socio economic status. Minority at large does
not represented by upper class members of ethnic minorities. But these
individuals are worth to study, because there residential choices are both
informed by choice and restriction.

Doing fieldwork in a segregated city-

has 660000 resider, the middle size town of Aligarh in the state of uttar Pradesh
would have unnoticed if there were not presence of the Aligarh Muslim university
(AMU). This important institute is devoted to the educational advancement of
the minority community. Just because of the university, the town has attracted
big no. of students and professors and now muslims are making up the population
of 41% of the town population against 57% of hindus. These minorities are
visible and there culture is supported by AMU. For this article there are 150
semi- directed interview conducted with muslim dwellers from different socio
economic background and with muslim politician too. Dhorrah which is a village
at the edge of the municipality was developed later when new professors from different
part of India sought new spaces to build their homes. These two upper classs
muslim enclaves were have quite streets and big elegant houses. And this area
was typical of civil lines area in general. But there was clearly difference
from posh hindu neighborhoods’ because of the display of a strong muslim
identity. There were many mosque and halal restaurants everywhere and the sign
are written in urdu. These neighborhood you can clearly see deep pattern of
segregation which is actually revels by the high visibility of muslim culture. Because
of frequently hindu muslim riots in the city muslims are a clearly visible
minority. And because of riots the city of Aligarh considered in the top list
of India’s most riot prone cities. The whole city structure has been affected
by tension between these to religious groups. And after each riots mixed area
which was used by hindu and muslim families to live are being left so they can
look for safety and can segregate themselves. The polarization pattern is quite
shocking here and mixed neighborhoods have become exception. There are many neighborhood
where muslim population is more than 95% 
with dissimilarity index of 0.78, which means that 78% of hindus or
muslims would  have to change their area
of residence. When asked from people from both communities they answer that
they fear from each other and it shows that communal tension are still high in

Sir syed nagar and Dhorrah’sthree-fold segregation-

searching for morality and shared cultural practices

places have residents who are from far away but have migrated to work at the universities
and they all have desire to settle here permanently.AMU is very friendly and
welcoming university for muslims. It’s a place where they can maintain their
identity. Muslim residents share with their neighborhood the same cultural
codes. And there are very few hindu 
professors in the university but they have adopted muslim practices of
interaction. Both the places provide muslim migrants cozy feeling, feeling for
belongingness and a moral Islamic environment. so these two neighborhoods can therefore
characterized as muslim enclaves where they have voluntarily come together to
maintain there muslim identity. However this characterization of neighborhood
miss the identity of class. residents are not only muslims but also they are
part of upper middle muslim class.

Drawing sharp boundaries with the muslim poor-

both the neighborhood muslims frames their Islamic identity in terms of good
manners, respectability and education. If you are a muslim so being in these
highly educated area it becomes matter of prestige.

identity is positively interpreted in terms of moral and cultural capital (courtesy,
respectability, religiosity, urdu poetry).Residents of the civil lines  see the city as busy, dangerous , dusty and aggressive
environment whose inhabitants are conservative, less mannered and having lack
of education. And this class intersect with local caste hierarchies. Muslims of
civil lines are upper caste muslims whereas 
old city muslims are often belongs to lower caste. So the civil lines
muslims try to differentiate themselves from typical poor and uneducated muslim
masses in order to maintain their prestigious status.

syed nagar and dhorrah these neighborhoods are not walled and interaction with
poor muslims remains important. So the residents are not fully separated from
their poor counterparts. So the citadel does not exist itself in the environment
but it remains strongly present in the mind of residents.

constraint back in: fear of riots and compelled segregation-

of respondents expressed frustration and fear regarding their residential
option. they admitted that their spatial clustering was more forcefully than
their choice. They did not have any choice to reside anywhere else than muslim area.

polarization of residential areas along religion is a process that inhabitants
have come to perceive natural with threat of riots and the segregation of the
two communities appears the best possible option. But after that the responses
come from respondents are that Hindu localities are better maintained and hindu
residents are organize themselves in effectively way to voice their needs and
complaints to local administration.


are three main conclusions after pursuing the neighborhoods of city of Aligarh-

Muslim see sir syed nagar and dhorrah as a cozy space of interaction,
in which they get feel sense of belongingness by sharing same culture and
religious codes.

Residents of both neighborhoods’ think of them as a selective space in
which lower-class Muslims are not welcome.

Residents of both neighborhoods’ consider them as a space of relegation
in which they are stuck and cannot be free from it, and their choice of living
is heavily restricted by a strong feeling of matter of prestige and insecurity
which is related to Hindu Muslim riots.