The land known as Israel or Palestine has been the centre of conflict based around both religious claims and geopolitics. The land is a key point, geographically because it guards access to Syria, Egypt, Lebanon and The Mediterranean. Since 1945, the conflict in this region has resulted in three major wars and almost constant low-level terrorism, numerous political assassinations which brought to the failure of either side bringing peace to its region. The conflict between the Israelis and the Palestinians derives from the fact that both sides have claims to the land. The Jews occupied Palestine since approximately 1000 BCE up to 135 CE. At this point the Jews were expelled by the Romans partly due to the fact that the Romans did not like that the Jews were monotheistic, that is to only worship one god. Later on during the dawn on the seventh century, the Arab Empire expanded much like wildfire through what we now refer to as the Middle East. Of course, the Arab Empire slowly declined and was taken over by the Turks, better known as the Ottoman Empire. By the end of the nineteenth century the Turkish Empire too was beginning to fall apart and with the persecution of Jews in Europe increasing, both of the said groups were planning on building a homeland in Palestine. Theodore Herzl’s idea to start a settlement for the Jews in Palestine was quickly adopted and became known as the concept of Zionism, formally defined as a form of Jewish nationalism which supports the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. Between the years 1880 and 1914, 60 000 Zionists migrated to Palestine. According to Herzl, ” If His Majesty Sultan were to give us Palestine, we could return undertake to regulate the whole finances of Turkey. We should there form a partition of a rampart of Europe against Asia, an outpost of civilisation as opposed to barbarism. We should as a neutral State remain in contact with all Europe, which would have to guarantee our existence.” The Arabs, already living in Palestine at the time already had a strong Anti-British and Anti-Turkish sentiment, but the competition for land with the rising number of Jews easily provided an Anti-Jew sentiment too. Even so, the Arabs were not very unified at the time with their own personal clashes to have any much higher than an unpleasant aroma with the Jews. The conflict really intensifies when the British enter the situation. The British tried to please both the Jews and The Arabs by offering them the creation of an Arab homeland as a return for assistance in the war against Turkey. Of course, The Arabs agreed as they already had a negative portrayal of The Turks. At the same time, the British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour promised Lord Rothschild that his government would support the creation of a Jewish homeland after the war.