Confusion as to sponsorship:
Even where consumers are unlikely t0 be confused as to source, they may be confused as to sponsorship. Team logo merchandise is a common example; consumers may expect that they are supporting the New York Yankees by purchasing a Yankees cap.
Initial interest confusion:
Sometimes, famous marks are used to lure consumers to different businesses. “Cyber squatting” by registering a well-known trademark as a domain name is one well-known example
Another is the use of Meta tags to fool search engines: a little-known adult Web site may attempt to attract visitors by showing up in web searches for more well-known adult entertainment franchises.
Both activities can be considered trademark infringement by confusion Post-sale confusion. Post- sale confusion is often used to find infringement in counterfeit goods, such as fake watches and handbags.
While the purchaser is likely to understand that they are buying a counterfeit product, the aim is to confuse others into thinking the product comes from a different source.
Although confusion cases generally involve a little-known business using a well-known mark, confusion can also be found when a well-known business uses a little-known mark.