Therefore opportunities were few. Thus it was

Therefore big landlords with vested interest in the British Rule retained their influence over the Muslim masses.

Moreover, since modern education was essential for entry into government services, there were few Muslims with government jobs.

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They lagged behind in this respect as well. The government had also consciously discriminated against the Muslims after 1858.

With passage of time modern education spread among the Muslims. Educated Muslims looked for government employment.

However, the opportunities were few. Thus it was easy for the British officials and loyalist Muslim leaders to incite the educated Muslims against the educated Hindus.

Patronage in Government Services was used to foster Communalism. It was cleverly used by the rulers to promote rivalry and discord among different sections of society and used it as bait.

2. The manner in which Indian History was thought/Communalism in writing of Indian History:

British writers on Indian history also served the Imperial cause by initiating, developing and emphasizing the Hindu-Muslim approach in their study of Indian history and development of Indian culture.

This communal approach to Indian history, also imitated by Indian scholars, fostered the communal way of thinking.

For example, the ancient period of Indian history was described as Hindu Period and the medieval period labelled as Muslim Period of Indian history, implying thereby that religion was the guiding force behind politics during the whole of the medieval period.

They failed to bring out the fact that ancient and medieval politics in India were based on economic and political interests and not on religious considerations. Moreover, the British and communal historians attacked the notion of a composite culture in India.

The Hindu communal views of history also relied on the myth that Indian society and culture had reached great, ideal heights in the ancient period from where they fell into permanent and continuous decay during the medieval period because of Muslim rule and domination.

The communal view of history also spread widely through poetry, drama, historical novels and short stories, newspaper and popular magazines, pamphlets and above all orally through the public platform, classroom teaching, socialization through the family and private conversation.

3. Communal side effects of Socio-Religious Reform Movements:

The Socio-Religious Reform and Revival Movements-both Hindu and Muslim-of the 19th century contained some mutually contradictory aspects.

The Wahabis’ crusade against all non-Muslims and aim to establish Dar-ul-Islam (the world of Islam) was as odious to Hindus as Dayanand’s slogan of Aryanisation of India and aim of Shuddhi (conversions of non-Hindus to Hinduism) were unpalatable to Muslims.

4. The Hindu Tinge in the political work and ideas of the militant nationalists:

The speeches and writings of some of the militant nationalists emphasized ancient Indian culture to the exclusion of medieval India culture.

They identified Indian culture and the Indian nation with the Hindu religions and Hindus and thus abandoned elements of composite culture.

They referred to Maharana Pratap, Shivaji and Guru Gobind Singh as national heroes and the Muslim rulers like Akbar, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb as ‘foreigners’.

Although leaders like Tilak and Gandhi were strong believers in Hindu-Muslim unity, but in their writings and speeches they often employed a language, imagery and symbolism derived exclusively from Hindu sources (e.g., the slogan of Ram Rajya popularized by Gandhiji). It did create a reaction in the Muslim mind.

British and pro-British propagandists took advantage of this to poison the minds of the Muslims.

The Hindu tinge also created ideological openings for Hindu communities and made it difficult for the Nationalist Movement to eliminate Hindu, communal, political and ideological elements within its own ranks. It also helped the spread of a Muslim tinge among Muslim nationalists.

5. The economic backwardness of the country:

Underdevelopment and economic backwardness also contributed to the rise of communalism.

Due to the lack of modern industrial development unemployment among the educated was acute and there was an intense competition for the existing jobs.

Many opting shortsighted and short-term remedies aroused communal and religious and later caste and provincial passion to corner a larger share of the limited jobs.

To those looking desperately for employment such a narrow appeal had a certain immediate attraction, Thus Hindu and Muslim communal leaders, caste leaders and the officials following the policy of divide and rule could achieve some success.