The Tabulating Era (1900 – 1940s):
The evolution of computing had a single purpose focus on the mechanical systems that counted, with the usage of punched cards to input and store data. It was also used to ultimately train the machines to perform what is to be done. The tabulation machines were basically calculators that are used for scaling of both business and society in order to establish, recognize and manage from population growth to advancement of global economy.
The Programming Era (1950s —2010):
The change from mechanical tabulators to electronic systems began during World War II, driven by military and scientific needs. Following the war, digital “computers” progressed swiftly and progressed into businesses and governments. They implemented if/then logical operations and loops, with instructions coded in software. Initially built around vacuum tubes, they were given a enormous lift by the invention of the transistor and the microprocessor, which came to exhibit “Moore’s Law,” doubling in capacity and speed every 18 months for six decades. Everything know as a computing device from the mainframe to the personal computer, to the smartphone and tablet is a programmable computer.
The Cognitive Era (2011 — ):
The potential for something beyond programmable systems was foreknown as far back as 1960, when computing pioneer J.C.R. Licklider wrote his seminal paper “Man-Computer Symbiosis.” Considerable amount of modern computing is based on Licklider’s research and insights: “Man-computer symbiosis is an expected advance in cooperative collaboration between men and electronic computers. It will include very close coupling between the human and the electronic members of the partnership. The main objectives are: 1. to let computers enable articulate thinking as they now facilitate the solution of verbalized problems, and 2. to allow men and computers to collaborate in making decisions and controlling complex situations without inflexible requirement on encoded programs.
Source: How humans and machines are forging a new age of understanding, Dr. John E. Kelly III
CORE CAPABILITIES OF A COGNITIVE SYSTEM:
A cognitive system comprises of five core capabilities. These core capabilities set the cognitive computing system ahead of any other computing system.
1. They create deeper human engagement:
Cognitive systems generate more human interactions with people based on the type, method and quality each person prefers. They make use of the data available today to generate a fine-grained picture of individuals such as geo location data, web interactions, transaction Image to history, loyalty program patterns, electronic medical records and data from wearable and picture details that have been difficult or impossible to detect such as tone, sentiment, emotional state, environmental conditions and the strength and nature of a person’s relationships. The system’s responds through the sum total of all this structured and unstructured data to find what really matters in engaging a person. By continuously learning, these engagements deliver greater and greater value, and become more natural, anticipatory and emotionally appropriate.