The been opened. Anticipating the event, the Emperor

The king’s Memoirs leave no doubt as to the attraction of the war
for him. With regard to the possibility
which was open to him in 1665 of declaring war either on Spain or on England at
war with the United Provinces, Louis XIV writes:”I looked forward with
pleasure to design of these two wars as a vast field where could be born at any
time great opportunities to report me”.

 The personal reign of Louis XIV includes,
indeed, thirty-one years of war against twenty-three years of peace. The success of Colbert’s reorganization of the
state during the first ten years of his reign was, in the King’s eyes, only the
means to realize his dream of military glory. It was he alone who really decided his foreign
policy, whose only factor of unity would be the royal direction oriented
towards greatness. Louvois had
forged him an excellent army, Colbert a good navy, Vauban had surrounded France with an admirable belt of
fortifications. Louis XIV gave to the single body grouping all
the formations assigned to his military house the name of King’s House .

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The war of Devolution:

The War
of Devolution took place in 1667 and 1668 . This is the first war of
the young Louis XIV . It ends on May 2, 1668 by
the signing of the Treaty
of Aix-la-Chapelle by the various belligerents. Philip IV , King
of Spain , dies on September 17, 1665 . He leaves the throne to his only son,Charles II , a
child so weak that the European courts do not doubt his impending death. In this hypothesis, the Spanish succession would have been opened. Anticipating the event, the Emperor Leopold I and Louis XIV , both
sons-in-law of the late Philip IV, signed a secret treaty of partition in
January 1668 in Vienna.

Without waiting,
Louis XIV, married since 1660 to the Infanta Maria Theresa , eldest daughter of Philip IV, made pretensions, in
the name of his wife, over several provinces of the Spanish monarchy. However, the Queen of France had renounced her rights, renunciation
expressed by the marriage contract and confirmed by the Treaty of the Pyrenees . But the clause of
the treaty of the Pyrenees which forced him there bound this renunciation to
the payment of a dowry of 500 000 gold crown which has never been settled.

Shortly after
the death of King Philip IV of Spain in September 1665 , France constitutes under the
name of the Treaty of the rights
of the Very Christian Queen , a file which opens the succession
of Spain . This treaty is based essentially on the right of devolution ,
an old custom of Brabant (one of the Belgian provinces , centered around its capital,Brussels), according to
which the children of a first marriage in this case, Marie-Thérèse, wife of
Louis XIV are the only heirs of their parents to the detriment of children born
of a second marriage in this case, Charles II.

The Grand Pensionary Johan de Witt tries to
prevent war, by inviting Louis XIV to consent to a transaction by which he
would have the Duchy of Luxembourg , Cambrai , Douai , Aire, Saint-Omer , Bergues and Veurne , provided that he
renounces all the claims that the queen might one day form on the Spanish
monarchy. Louis XIV never wanted to
subscribe to this condition, war broke out in 1667 .

 

War against Holland:

The Dutch war takes
place from 1672 to 1678 . It opposes France and its allies ( Liege , Münster , England , Bavaria , Sweden ) to the Quadruple Alliance including the United Provinces , the Holy Roman Empire , Brandenburg and Spain .Triumphant of its
adversaries, France, by the treaty of Nijmegen which puts an end to the war,
confirms its rank of first European power by acquiring the Franche-Comté and several cities of Flanders .

After the War of Devolution (1667-1668), Louis XIV believes he must get rid of
the Hague’s Triple
Alliance of 1668 , and especially the United Provinces if he wants to
continue to conquer the Spanish territories (according to himself the legacy of
his father-in-law Philip IV ). Moreover, despite the very
protectionist French tariffs of 1664 and 1667 , the Dutch are formidable competitors for French
merchants and manufacturers. A victory over Holland would reduce the problem. Also Louvois , who
since 1670 heads the State Secretariat for War is pushing in this
direction. The war against the United Provinces should allow him to show
the king his organizing skills, even to impose himself against the brilliant
warlords like Condé and Turenne. The political
opposition (the Protestant republic allows to publish medals mocking the absolute
Catholic monarch) also provokes the pride of Louis XIV.

War of
the Augsburg league:

League of Augsburg consists of Bavaria,
Austria, Brandenburg, the Dutch Republic, Ireland,
England, the Palatinate of
the  Rhine, Portugal, Savoy, Scotland,
Saxony, Spain and Sweden. The politics of meetings, begun in 1679 by Louis XIV, who systematically exploited the
suspicious clauses of earlier treaties, exasperated Europe: a meeting of
villages formerly dependent on the Three Bishops, Alsace, the Saarland, and
Luxembourg; especially,
in 1681, meeting of Strasbourg. The Turkish advance stops the coalition first. But, in 1683, the emperor is victorious at Kahlenberg. In 1686, formation of the league of Augsburg. In 1688, the invasion of Cologne and the
Palatinate set fire to the powders. Coalition of the whole Europe against Louis XIV. Despite the victories of the Duke of Luxembourg at Fleurus (1690),Steinkerque (1692), Neerwinden (1693) and Nicolas Catinat at La Marsaille (1693), the balance of forces kept the war
going.

 Peace
of Ryswick (1697). Return to the borders of 1679. Of the
“meetings”, France keeps only Strasbourg. Louis XIV recognizes William of Orange king of
England.

 

War of succession of
Spain:

The War of
Spanish Succession was a conflict between several European powers
from 1701 to 1714 , whose stake was the succession to the throne of Spain
following the death without descendants of the last Spanish Habsburg Charles II and, through him, domination
in Europe. Last great war of Louis XIV , it allowed France to
install a French monarch in Madrid :Philip V , but with a reduced power,
and the renunciation, for him and for his descent, to the throne of France,
even in the case where the other princes of the French blood would disappear. These conditions did not permit
a union as close as that hoped for by Louis XIV. The war of succession, however, gave birth to the dynasty of
the Bourbons of Spain , which still reigns today.

With
the Treaties of Utrecht (1713) and Rastatt (1714). France returns to the limits of
Ryswick, but loses the gates of Canada (Acadia, Newfoundland); the economic clauses, especially, are very
unfavorable, for the benefit of England. If Philip V remains king of Spain, he loses
the Netherlands and his Italian possessions (Milan, Naples and Sicily).

France in 1715:

On September 1, 1715, Louis XIV dies after an illness.

 But in 1715, France emerged territorially enlarged wars of Louis XIV, and the
strengthened borders will prevent for a century any foreign invasion. In the military field, great progress has been achieved; France has the first army of Europe, and, above all, a real
stewardship has finally been created (arsenals, stage shops, barracks). If the navy, after 1690, declines, for lack of means, the first
place belongs to the private armaments, and the king knew how to favor and
judiciously employ the private fleets of the merchants.

 The great weakness
is the finances. In 1715, the state is heavily
indebted by more than twenty years of almost successive wars. Louis XIV, because of his wars, never had, after 1672, stable
finances. This imbalance is aggravated by the absence of
a major bank and credit institutions, and despite the efforts of Vauban, which
was not listened to, there was no reform in the distribution. taxes.

 As for the State, the work of Louis XIV was a
modernization enterprise. If the old administration of
the venal officers still subsists, it no longer has great authority; the reality of power now belongs to the
Royal Government and its strong network of stewards. The “peasant fury” disappeared at the same time as the
police and the army developed. Nomadic elements, which may
become dangerous, have been sedentary: beggars in general hospitals, soldiers
in barracks.

 In 1715, in a France still surrounded by all
the glories of its “Grand Siècle”, the centralizing administrative
monarchy began. The orderly France of Louis XV announces
itself.

 

Opinion:

Louis XIV was the
most powerful monarch France had ever seen. He helped with the expansion of
France. He was very ambitious but his wars weren’t beneficial to France. The
Sun king seemed to show some sympathy to his subjects. Louis’s abuse of power led to revolution that
would inspire the call for democratic government throughout the world