The aim of the present study is to investigate the
interplay between job demands (JD) and job resources (JR) by using the general
framework of the JD-R Dual Processes theory to examine both the existence of
these combinations of JD and JR and their relationship with teacher well-being
and teacher performance. This theory holds the assumption that whereas
employees in di?erent organizations may be confronted with di?erent working
environments, the characteristics of these environments can always be classi?ed
in two general categories—job demands and job resources—thus constituting an
overarching model that may be applied to various occupational settings,
irrespective of the particular demands and resources involved (Demerouti, E., Bakker,
Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001).
JD-R/Dual Processes Theory highlights the energetic and motivational processes
in teacher well-being and performance. Job demands being positively linked with
burnout (Bakker, Schaufeli, Sixma, Bosveld, & Van Dierendonck, 2000)point out to the
energetic process. The characteristics of the job and the organization are
associated with the onset of burnout measured in terms of emotional exhaustion,
depersonalization, and reduced personal achievement (Maslach C.
While the motivational process is linked with job resources leading to positive
organizational outcomes such as improved teacher performance (Hakanen J.
Mediating such is organizational commitment that have been identified to be
affective, continuance, and normative (Meyer, 1997).
further proposed that there exists a cross-link between the two processes whereby
job resources relate negatively to burnout due to the fact that if job
resources are high they can act as a buffer in the relationship between job
demands and burnout (Hakanen et al., 2006; Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004).
this study also sought to expand the JD-R Theory by examining how personal
resources operate in relation to the model’s processes. Personal resources are
facets of the self that are generally linked to resiliency and refer to
individuals’ sense of ability to control and impact upon their environment
successfully (Hobfoll, Johnson, Ennis, & Jackson, 2003). The domains for
personal resources include self-efficacy, optimism, confidence, extroversion,
psychological resistance, and hope (Luthans, 2002).
Figure 1 presents the interrelationship between the
exogenous variables – Job Demands and Job Resources. It also extends to present
their direct causal relationship to the endogenous variable, burnout and
organizational commitment, respectively. The proposed model further illustrates
that burnout and organizational commitment is hypothesized to have direct
causal relationship with the endogenous variable, teacher well-being and
Alternative models were tested in the course of this study
in an attempt to obtain the best fit model of teacher well-being and
performance. The model has a framework that could be decomposed into two
submodels: a measurement model and a structural model. The measurement model
represents the measure loads on each factor to their latent constructs while
the structural model defines relations among the latent variables.