The purpose of
this research paper is to analyse the research methods, findings, and
contributions presented by the authors Fetterman, Robinson, Gordon, and Elliot
in their 20122 article, ‘Anger as Seeing Red: Perceptual Sources of Evidence’.
This paper mainly focuses on how the colour red is not just an aesthetic
stimulus, but also has meaning. Its been shown to hold the meaning of
behaviour, evoking avoidance motivation and failure in achievement situations.
The article specifically addresses whether manipulating anger concepts or anger
itself would result in a greater proportion of red perceptions, maybe the
independent of the actual colour shown. The authors examined whether both anger
concepts and anger experiences would be equally effective in priming red
perceptions. They also seeked whether such manipulations would lead individuals
to perceive red independent of the
presented colour, or instead would facilitate such recognition of the colour red
when actually presented.
In Experiment 1, the sample included a total of 79 undergraduates,
32 females and 45 males, from North Dakota State University needing a course
credit. The ethnic make-up of this included 66.25% White, 21.25% Asian/Pacific
Islander, 3.75% Black, and 8.75% other/not specified. From the look of the
participants, it seems that it is a general study rather than a selective group
of people. Choosing a specific group of people would not have made a difference
to this trial because in this attempt, anger concepts were informed and were
found to lead individuals to be more likely to identify red. Metaphoric
processes were observed in regards to a strong set of constraints. No form of
communication was presented, and the dependent task was perceptual in nature. It
was run on a personal computer and this exercise focused on their capability to
alternate between one task categorizing words and the other concerning
perceiving degraded colours. On odd-numbered trials, participants had to
categorize words by saying whether it falls under “anger” or “sadness” related.
On even numbered trials, they were asked to show whether the ambiguous colour
stimulus was blue or red.
A sample of 98, 29 female and 7 identified, undergraduates were
selected from North Dakota State University. The ethnic make-up included 87.50%
White, 2.5% Black, 5.0% Asian/Pacific Islander, 1.25% Hispanic, and 3.75%
other/not specified. For Experiment 2, it seems the researchers conducted a
general observation rather than selecting a certain group of people.
Experimenting on a targeted group will not make a difference besides the
opinions of each participant. This research was conducted on the participants’
own personal computer and were told that this experiment was to see their
ability to alternate between two separate and distinct perceptual tasks. Participants’
were informed that the odd-numbered trials would have to do with listening to
sounds while the even-numbered trials would involve a different colour task. They
would have to categorize the degraded colour as red or blue.
Overall, these experiments are considered correlational research.
The main purpose of Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 were to see whether or no in
both cases if the emotion ‘anger’ is perceived as red. This is an effective
method the researchers used to observe anger as seeing red.
In the first experiment, the results
indicated that the effects of priming and colour could be illiberally
investigated in two-by-two repeated measures ANOVA, with a part of red
perceptual responses as the dependent variable. ANOVA showed us the essential effect for the
Actual Colour; it revealed that it was more of a chance to classify colour
stimuli as red rather than blue. Prime Type showed us that the participants
were more likely to see the colour stimulus as red following anger primes in
relation to sadness primes. There wasn’t any interaction between Actual Colour
and Prime type interaction, which therefore shows that the effect of anger
priming manipulation was independent of actual colour. The second experiment
shows us that the bottom-up and top-down influences on colour perception can be
illiberally investigated in two-by-two repeated measures ANOVA, with the
percentage of red responses as the dependent measure. This was Actual Colour
versus the Noise Condition, the participants perceived a coloured stimulus as a
red following noise, and there was no interaction between the two. Overall
anger inductions made people see red independent of the actual colour of the
target stimuli. In both experiments, sex was not significant. These findings
seem accurate because participants were able to do this all in the comfort of
their own home and not being influenced or controlled by any of the people
conducting the experiment. Some variables that might have influenced this is
maybe few of the participants are colour-blind and perceived a stimulus as a
different colour, which can alter what the researchers thoughts on what was
expected out of it.
The researchers found that in neither experiment were the
participants influenced to believe that metaphoric associations were of
interest. No speech was involved in any sort of way in both experiments. The
dependent task involved colour perception and not linguistic processing.
Experiment 1 showed that priming the individuals with anger made them see red
more often in relation to the coloured stimuli, Experiment 2 went straight to
the question, showing that individuals in an angry state are more bound to see
red. This research does not provide a significant and concrete contribution; it
does offer potential routes for future research and exploration. Nursing is a
health care profession that must consider both objective and subjective data
when addressing a patient. On occasion, nurses will be confronted by new
events, and cant lack internal resources to devise a plan of action to deal
with them. Such encounters can include being confronted by an angry patient,
visitor or even a colleague. Anger can escalate depending on nurses actions or
response. Anger is one of the most popular issues nurses face in the health
care community and it is their job to respond appropriately.