TABLE Sampling and Sampling Technique………………………………………………………..8-9D. Data Collection………………………………………………………………………………………9E. Data

   TABLE OF CONTENTS I. ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………………..2-3II. INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM………………………………………………..3-5A. Background of “Privacy vs. Security” Debate……………………………………………3A.1. Security Dimension……………………………………………………………………………..4A.2. Privacy Dimension………………………………………………………………………………4A.3. Technological Devices………………………………………………………………………4-5III. INTRODUCTION TO STUDY……………………………………………………………5-6A. Research Questions………………………………………………………………………………..5B. Hypothesis…………………………………………………………………………………………….5C. Variables……………………………………………………………………………………………….6IV. LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………………………………………6-7V. METHODOLOGY………………………………………………………………………………7-9A. Research Design……………………………………………………………………………………7A.1. Interview or Survey?…………………………………………………………………………….7A.2. Privacy and Security Preference Scale (PASS)………………………………………..8B. Population…………………………………………………………………………………………..8-9C. Sampling and Sampling Technique………………………………………………………..8-9D. Data Collection………………………………………………………………………………………9E. Data Analysis…………………………………………………………………………………………9VI. REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………………………10     

WHAT DO PEOPLE THINK ABOUTPRIVACY, FREEDOM VS. SECURITY?I. ABSTRACTSince technological developments extremely became an integral part of our daily lives, it brought many disadvantages along with its path-breaking advantages. Human race bore witness to the inventions of the telegram, the radio, fax, television, the telephone, etc. with a great astonishment in recent centuries. After the 1990s the unbelievable development of communication technologies and the way they become common across the globe made the hugest impact to the human way of living. Integration of the internet technology which is an extraordinary invention itself with computer technologies, cameras, phones led the modern world into another stage of civilization. Technological development gains speed every day if we consider the first AI robot Sofia was introduced recently. Even smartphones are a bit old technology in this context.People’s range to communicate was limited to the place they live in for a very long time in human history. It was taking very long time even for a government letter to be delivered. But today, in the modern world we live in, we can pass over the oceans and communicate with other people with one click — how cliche — and less than a second. We can check “what’s the weather look like in London today?” from our smartphones while it reads us the news. Since everything seems like we’re going to live in a super technological Black Mirror world, we need to consider some issues about what it brings.As I mentioned above technology became wide across the globe and it entered into our pockets. There are CCTV cameras nearly everywhere. Smartphones have GPS service and our locations can be found easily and mostly we give permission to it usually unconsciously. CCTV cameras, GPS service, the internet, social media accounts… These all mean we can be monitored and watched. Governments and intelligence agencies can collect data about citizen’s actions or track people who are seen as a threat, maybe terrorists with security reasons. Also, hackers can steal this information, even credit card information, to blackmail people. Thanks to CCTV cameras for their incredible usefulness to fight the crime but many people feel their privacy is being violated. So much of our personal information and actions are accessible through the internet easily, and it makes many of us uncomfortable. Security or privacy? It’s really a controversial issue and neither both can be an answer. Is an optimal combination possible? How far should governments go to provide security? Can the internet be a regulation area of the government? These questions still need answers.  Broadly, in this study, appropriate answers to these questions will be sought: “What do people think about privacy, freedom vs security in terms of developing technology?”, “Do they prioritize one of them?” and other extensions to that question.  To reduce the costs and save time, the research area will be restricted to the Istanbul district of Turkey and the target group will be restricted to 18-40 years old of people. I will only seek to provide a data based on people’s experiences and thoughts.II. INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM A. Background of “Privacy vs. Security” DebateIt’s been a very controversial issue. What modernization process brought was centralization. Along with high technology, central political authorities had significant opportunities in accessing data they need, controlling undesired situations, delivering orders in seconds. Also, controlling the public through various channels consciously or unconsciously became a tool for decision makers: surveillance. They claimed that to fight the crime, terrorists, etc. it was necessary to give up on some of the liberty and privacy. That was their security argument. Today many of people are tracked, their private e-mails are read, their privacy is being violated. It’s argued that there should be a security-privacy balance of governments’ actions.  (Reference)(The data provided above show the change of people’s thoughts about the U.S. government’s anti-terrorism policies across years.)There are for and against opinions about surveillance:A.1. Security Dimension:The defenders claim that it’s necessary for the prevention of crime, and it makes them feel secured, protected and if it’s necessary, personal privacy and liberty can be ignored to some level. Modern world’s security threats such as terrorism, cybercrime and other common crimes like robbery can be prevented by new technological advancements or if it happens, the perpetrator of it can be found in a short time. One related example to the evidence dimension of digital data is after 15th July Turkish coup d’état attempt, many suspects were arrested with their connection to FETO through an application they use on their mobile phones. Because of the idea of being his/her actions are being watched and fear of getting caught, people’s rate of doing crime decrease. But along with it, there may occur some private life violations. Unrelated people can be tracked and their personal information can be recorded. Also, since people act more cautious, they will not act independently and freely. We shouldn’t underestimate the unrelated interventions in personal life. Since nearly all of our information is available online, it can be easily abused and our personal preferences which we don’t prefer to share can be recorded by third parties. A.2. Privacy Dimension: The opponents are against to the violation of personal liberty and privacy by state surveillance even with the security reasons. According to John Locke, one of the most important philosophers who shaped the Enlightenment thought, people have natural rights which they obtain by birth such as life, liberty, and estate. People come together and delegate some of their power and rights to a political authority for the protection of their rights and freedom. To him, the ultimate purpose of this “social contract” is the protection of life, liberty, and estate. Therefore, some argue that governments should respect the privacy and personal liberty of people and shouldn’t involve in that area for security reasons. Privacy of personal life is also regulated in the European Court of Human Rights. In this era of internet, new perspectives are needed for the protection of personal life and limiting the interventions to it.A.3. Technological Devices: Technological devices can be used in two ways in data collection and record from the public. First of them is through public surveillance explicitly with the closed-circuit camera television (CCTV cameras). In today, they’re nearly everywhere and everything is recorded. It has advantages and disadvantages as I mentioned above but they’re really efficient to decrease and detect the crime.The second one of them is public surveillance implicitly. It may be both legal and illegal. Governments, intelligence agencies or even hackers can reach our information without being noticed. Our smartphones contain all the information about our location, messages, photos we took and where have us been, our music taste, credit cards and briefly who we are. Once we start to use them, it becomes a reflection of us. GPS service allows third-party people to find where we are located. In the wrong hands, information can turn into a very dangerous problem. Remembering Edward Snowden, a former U.S. government official, leaked that the U.S.A. was accessing millions of people’s personal phone record give birth to the question: “How far should governments go to provide security?”.III. INTRODUCTION TO STUDYA. Research QuestionsWhat do people think about privacy, freedom vs security in terms of advanced technology? Do they prioritize one of them? Is an optimal combination of both possible? How far should governments go to provide security? Should the internet be a regulation area of the government? Do people feel secured or feel their privacy is being violated? Do they think that surveillance is a good way for the government to fight the crime? Do they feel uncomfortable with every action of them is being watched by CCTV cameras? What do they think about legal/illegal telephone tapping? Do people act cautiously because they feel they’re being watched?B. Hypothesis1. Most of the people prefer security option in our research area (Istanbul, Turkey).2. In higher education leveled people, we can see “privacy” option is more preferred compared to the others.3. People feel disturbed that their personal information is under threat due to hackers.4. People believe that governments and intelligence agencies should respect to privacy while handling security issues.5. Many people allow GPS service on their smartphones for various applications and share their locations willingly.  C. VariablesVariables of this study are determined as:Independent variables: Security, Privacy, SurveillanceDependent variables: People’s opinion, human behavior, and actions.IV. LITERATURE REVIEWIn the academic literature, there are articles and books which emphasize on this subject. I will try to summarize what they argue. The academic literature is scanned through Google Scholar interface. Some significant contributions to the literature will be mentioned here.In his book “Surveillance Society: Monitoring Everyday Life” (Lyon, 2001), David Lyon studies the effects of surveillance on everyday life. He tells that it has two sides, one of them is providing security and preventing crimes. The other one is that it shapes human lives and social interactions. In this study of him, he gives a historical sense and development of surveillance, communications with electronic devices and everyday life which is being monitored. He describes surveillance in the modern world as an “electronic eye” which follows us even when we’re having a drink.Nick Taylor’s “State surveillance and the right to privacy”(Taylor, 2002) article focuses on the UK example and studies modern technological developments, their contribution to surveillance and the way they decrease the crime while points out the right of privacy and possible violations. The legal regulations about private life are being analyzed comprehensively and it’s exemplified with related cases. It’s mentioned that Article 8 of European Court of Human Rights is one of the most important statements that protect private life and pushes states to make proper regulations about it. Along with it Article 8 provides a legal background to state surveillance in terms of domestic laws in the conditions like national security, public safety etc.In his book “The End of Privacy: How Total Surveillance Is Becoming a Reality”, Reg Whitaker largely analyzed state surveillance and privacy in terms of new information technologies. State surveillance became one of the main tools of governments to maintain their power. Orwellian state model which is based on the monopoly of information inspired many governments and some pragmatic ways of it are taken as an example. He mentioned dystopic surveillance models such as Orwell’s “Big Brother” and Bentham’s “The Panopticon” and gave real-time similar examples to it. The study also makes its analysis around a historical context. Internal and external security dynamics related to state surveillance are explained. Fairchild et al. focus on the public health surveillance of the state. They interrogate the privacy violation in public health area by providing information to the state and registration of diseases. In cases like HIV, it makes privacy more important.In one of the academic studies, “Face recognition technology: security versus privacy” (Bowyer, 2004), it’s been analyzed that the face recognition technology and its social impacts. He took attention to the increasing importance of face recognition technology after the 11th September 2001 terrorist attacks. He tells that it’s a very useful tool for national security but on the other hand it creates a fear of privacy violation.In conclusion, the academic literature theoretically covers the discussion. They do not underestimate the role and importance of surveillance to prevent and detect the crime but they indicate their concerns about violation of private life and the necessity of clearly defined legal regulations about it.In a symposium, Veysel Dinler points out the effects of technological monitoring and recording devices to privacy. He compares the benefits and drawbacks of surveillance by giving examples. He explains the right to privacy with its historical and philosophic background. He offers some advice for surveillance and explains concerns about intervention to private life.There are not many significant survey-based studies. They’re mostly about U.S.A and its security policies. In a survey which is conducted by Pew Research Center, it was researched that what U.S citizens think about surveillance, security, and privacy. According to the results, %54 percent of Americans are against digital data collection of government with anti-terrorism reasons. To get more information about the results you can visit the following link:(http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/05/29/what-americans-think-about-nsa-surveillance-national-security-and-privacy/)Also, the CNN editor Deena Zaru in an internet article of her summarizes and asks up-to-date questions about this issue. She emphasizes on the U.S.A and digital world and smartphones.V. METHODOLOGYThe following methodological outline will be followed in the proposed study. The methods I will use to collect data, population and data analysis will be explained.A. Research DesignA.1. Interview or Survey?I could use survey and interview methods in the study. But in this study, the “survey” method which I see as more suitable will be used in the data collection process. Advantages and disadvantages of both of these methods and why did I choose the survey method will be explained below. Interview Method: Despite the interview method has advantages such as allowing us to give a depth to our study, opportunity to observe the behavior of respondents; it has some disadvantages such as the risk of the disruption of objectivity. Also, it’s relatively costly compared to surveys and people you can reach is limited because of time. Another disadvantage is that because it contains manual data entry it can cause misleading outcomes. Survey Method: Choosing survey method will allow us to reach much more people in a relatively shorter time. The cost and time advantage is one of the main reasons why the survey method is selected. We will be able to collect a wide range of data. The survey will be face-to-face. The survey will have an extra part which is an integration of Privacy and Security Preference Scale (PASS) questions. There will be mostly scale-based questions to make easier of the standardization process of the results. It will help us to put a more systematic output in the end. Also, demographic questions will help us to make a complex analysis of the data collected. A.2. Privacy and Security Preference Scale (PASS)PASS will take place as an integration to the survey and it will be used to formulate the preference of people between privacy and security. Since it’s not an obligation to choose one, it will measure the tendency. It will be generated by me as the main executive of this study and it will have questions about privacy and security and will give us a tendency result by scoring. If the results are: 0-10 = privacy is prioritized by that person, 11-20 privacy is prioritized but some exceptions for security can be made, 21-30 = neutral to both, 31-40 = security is prioritized by that person. Then in the data analysis stage PASS results will be taken into consideration. PASS will be an important tool to gather data about people’s point of views and create a spectrum about that dilemma.B. PopulationThe survey and “Privacy and Security Preference Scale (PASS)” will be applied inÜsküdar, Kad?köy, Beyo?lu, Ata?ehir, Ba?c?lar, Bak?rköy, Çekmeköy, Maltepe, Ümraniye districts of Istanbul, Turkey.C. Sampling and Sampling TechniqueDetails about sampling and sampling technique are listed below:Stratified sampling technique will be used in this study. “Sample Size” is determined as 600″Confidence Level” is determined as %95″Margin of Error” is determined as %4D. Data CollectionThe data will be collected by fieldwork which will be executed by a team of survey in determined districts. The following instructions and prepared survey model will be given to that survey team: 1) Ask the questions of survey face to face and respect instructions. Your rigorous attitude is very important for the core of this study.2) Briefly explain what this study is and what it is not, explain the context of this survey to the respondent. 3) Please do not explain the questions, just read them as they are and read again if it’s necessary. 4) Please do not use phrases that can direct people’s opinions. 5) Ask the questions in the right order and do not mix the questions. 6) After applying “PASS” to one respondent, write down their score to the related blank space.E. Data AnalysisData analysis process will start with the evaluation of the data collected directly from the field and it will be analyzed through appropriate quantitative and qualitative methods. After the analysis process, a final report which evaluates the results will be prepared.       VI. REFERENCES

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