Stem of a cell division) into another stem

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that later on can
differentiate into a specialised cell and can also divide by mitosis (a type of
a cell division) into another stem cell 1. Embryonic stem cells are cells
found in the early stages of the embryo 1. Somatic stem cells are located in
the tissues which repair and maintain themselves when they are growing or, are
damaged 1. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and therefore have the total
potential to develop into any cell in the body 1. Somatic stem cells are in
the body, in the tissues after embryos develop 5. They are multi potent 5.  Stem cells have the potential to be grown
into a particular type of specialised cell, tissue or even an organ 5.
However they have to be instructed to code into that specific category. This
can help certain diseases as they can replace the cell, tissue or organ that is
not functioning well.

Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and so have the ability
to synthesise into any new specialised cell in the body. Due to this they can
be used advantageously in medical science. ESc can differentiate into any
specialised cell and therefore can be used by people who do not have that very
specific cell or it can be replaced with someone’s cell if it does not function
to its required standards. For example; someone who smokes lose their ciliated
epithelial cell over time and this very cell can be replaced by a new ciliated
epithelial cell. Embryonic stem cells can also synthesise into new organ which
can be transplanted for a damaged organ. In the same circumstance, imagine
someone who smokes for a long time and develops lung cancer the new lung can be
transplanted for the damaged lung. However all things have limitation. When the
specialised cells, tissues, or organs are replaced, the ESc has to be treated
in a specialised way consistently in order to develop into those specific
categories. It also requires some time to synthesise into that specific cell
(takes least time), specific tissue (takes a fair amount of time), a specific
organ (takes most time). Sometimes our body do not accept the foreign ESc as
the body has always functioned with the faulty cell, tissue, or organ therefore
the patient need to take pills which weakens the immune systems until the body
is prepared to work with the new Esc 2. Meanwhile, the immune system is
extremely weak to new invaders to the body and therefore the patient need to be
cautious. Religious people feel sympathetic about innocent lives been taken
away as they think they do not have the right to take away lives 2. Using
stem cells requires much approval such as from the government, hospitals and
owners. This can cause delays. Lastly, they can divide abnormally and cause
mutation leading to variety of cancer 2.  Overall, in my opinion I think that Esc are
very useful and important to the society and medical field but are very
controversial.

Somatic stem cells are similar to embryonic stem cells but instead
are multi potent 3. This means they have the ability to differentiate into
only a limited amount of cells. These types of stem cells can also be used to
help in medical science as they help regenerate damage tissues 3. These can
be found in kids as well as adults 1. Somatic stem cells are small in number
and can be found in umbilical cord, bone marrow and many more tissues and
organs 1. A bone marrow (adult stem cells) is an organ that produces stem
cells such as blood, white blood and platelets cells which are all specialised
cells 2. Somatic stem cells can also help many diseases. An example is sickle
cell disease. This is when a faulty gene causes wrong blood cells to be
produces by the bone marrow. The bone marrow produces crescent shaped blood
cells causing symptoms such as joint aches, and lack of oxygen; causing tiredness
and lack of energy affects aerobic 4. Now a bone marrow (somatic stem cell)
transplant can fix this problem as normal blood cells can be produced causing
no more symptoms. No embryos are needed or to be destroyed and it can regenerate
tissues vey easily after the procedure of transplant 2.  However they have few disadvantages. Like Esc,
the body might not accept the new foreign attack so therefore pills are needed
to be used. This weakens the immune system allowing the somatic stem cells to
replace the old one. The immune is now system weaker to new foreigners. As the
somatic stem cells are multi potent they are only able to divide into a limited
number of cells. They are not as very controversial as embryonic stem cells 2.
I think that somatic stem cells are also very helpful in the medical industry.   

According to the pros and cons (research) of each stem cell,
the best type of stem cells to use on patients depends on the disease or issue
they have. Then using diagnosis we can judge on what type of stem cell can be
used. I think different stem cells work better with different diseases. For
example a doctor is most like to choose to use embryonic stem cells for lung
cancer than somatic stem cells being used. Similarly the same doctor is likely
to choose to use somatic cells for sickle cell disease than using embryonic
stem cells. Overall looking at the two types of stem cells, in my opinion
believe that embryonic stem cells are the best type of stem cell to use on
patient is embryonic stem cells. I believe this because even if the bone marrow
is used for sickle cell disease the ESc has the total potential to become a
bone marrow. It’s just moral to use somatic stem cells as it’s faster and the
patient has less to suffer from. However these stem cells have never been used
before as they are controversial for many reasons. Also there would never
somatic stem cells if there were never any embryonic stem cells in the first
place.