The circumstances which widened the differences between the Moderates and the Extremists and ultimately were to result in the split in the nationalist ranks were based on the difference among the two groups that arose due to difference in the policies, programmes, aims and objectives.

Moreover the fast growing popularity of Extremists, especially after partition of Bengal, alarmed the Moderate leadership within the Congress.

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The situation further deteriorated due to the clash of personalities between the leaders of the two rival groups, especially between Tilak and Gokhale and Pherozeshah Mehta.

The offer of fresh reform proposals by Lord Minto (1906) and the participation of Moderate leaders in its discussion with Government while the latter was forcibly crushing a popular movement brought moderates and extremists to loggerhead at Surat.

Meanwhile, the rise of revolutionary terrorism and outbreak of Hindu-Muslim riots cooled the enthusiasm of Moderates for Swadeshi Movement. The ultimate result of the differences between the two groups was the split in the party.