Source Understanding of Social Media: Theorizing Twitter.” Sociology,

Source 1FactKONIECZNY, PIOTR. “Signs of a Generational Change in Social Movements—Activists’ Use of Modern Information and Communication Technologies.” Polish Sociological Review, no. 187, 2014, pp. 261–290. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/24371630.EQ’sWhere do we blur the boundaries between members and non-members of ICTs? What are the specifics of the use of new media in terms of organization and membership? AnswerModern ICTs (email, websites, phones, social networks) are successful in the social movement scene, rather than blogs, podcasts, and online petitions, which perform relatively poorly. Organizations in developed communities, and younger organizations, tend to use modern ICTs more, as they view the platforms as more empowering and useful. The issues they address are also more related to Internet-era topics. In particular, email and websites have drawn attention. They are the most widely used ICTs. Recognizing these modern ICTs as tools also comes with the concern of issues such as free culture and digital rights.Source 2JudgmentMurthy, Dhiraj. “Towards a Sociological Understanding of Social Media: Theorizing Twitter.” Sociology, vol. 46, no. 6, 2012, pp. 1059–1073. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/43497339.EQ’sHow can we broadly consider Twitter in historical and sociological terms? What literature in the discipline can we employ to provide a set of directions for sociologists studying Twitter? How can these theoretical innovations be developed?AnswerTwitter and other social media networks allow users access to the everyday aspects of their fellow users. In essence, people understand other people at a multidimensional level. Another approach is to consider Twitter as democratizing consumption. Future work can answer questions about Twitter and communication, social interaction, and verbosity. Social media should be used to answer social, economic, and sociological questions.Source 3Fact/JudgmentKasana, Mehreen. “Feminisms and the Social Media Sphere.” Women’s Studies Quarterly, vol. 42, no. 3/4, 2014, pp. 236–249. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/24365006.EQ’sWhat are the counternarratives in regards to solidarity in social media? For the work of bloggers and activists on various several issues, how did their networks increase? Their followers increase? Their voices consolidate? Further argument political unity?AnswerThe effect of social media social movements is felt by people online and offline. It allows for discourse on a variety of issues. It is driven by networks, generally boundless, and inexpensive. Marxist feminists recognize the flaws of social media; for instance, they acknowledge the importance of face-to-face communication. Further, in some cases there have been negative ideas sprung because of social media. They believe that in order to empower labor unions, such issues need to be addressed. Still, feminists have utilized social media to highlight issues and online discourse. The Internet is like a “safe space,” a digital domain where women can materialize activism and bond with other women.Source 4FactLim, Niel Niño. “Novel or Novice: Exploring the Contextual Realities of Youth Political Participation in the Age of Social Media.” Philippine Sociological Review, vol. 57, 2009, pp. 61–78. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/23898344.EQ’sWhat are the realities of political participation in the modern digital era? How do social media platforms impact political participation and shape social movements?AnswerSocial media networks allow for enhanced political participation. However, at the same time, the destruction of social movements are inevitable because the use of the Internet is increasingly indispensable. There is a gap between social movements that only view the Internet as a tool and social movements that use it as a medium and mode.Source 5FactSupovitz, Jonathan. “Twitter Gets Favorited in the Education Debate.” The Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 97, no. 1, 2015, pp. 20–24. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/24578506.EQ’sHow is public policy incubation playing out on social media? Particularly, how we can use the example of the Common Core educational debate to understand how public policy incubation is impacted by emerging social media systems?AnswerAs the result of a more and more interconnected world, the way we understand and process ideas comes from independent processes and the diffusion of these ideas across people and systems. Social media is now not just a method of consumption of media; it is a method of production and perpetration. Consequently, social media greatly impacts the political environment today. There is a shift from traditional advocacy groups to the new “activist public.” These new phenomena are continuously changing how we create public opinion and incubate public policy ideas.Source 6FactJonathan A. Obar, et al. “Advocacy 2.0: An Analysis of How Advocacy Groups in the United States Perceive and Use Social Media as Tools for Facilitating Civic Engagement and Collective Action.” Journal of Information Policy, vol. 2, 2012, pp. 1–25. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.5325/jinfopoli.2.2012.0001.EQ’sIs social media able to promote collective civic action and engagement? How we can use the examples of different advocacy groups to understand this emerging trend? What future studies can build on this research?AnswerAlmost all the studied advocacy groups in this research stated that social media is effective in promoting collective civic action and engagement. Most are using theses social media networks every day. Large groups are working with larger outreach teams; small groups are building outreach teams or using volunteer teams. All teams used social media networks to interact with citizens, most notably Facebook. Twitter was also popular. Overall, advocacy groups believe that social media networks allow them to increase the speed of communication and do more for less. At the same time, concerns were associated with integrating well-established routinesSource 7Fact/JudgmentEarl, Jennifer, and Katrina Kimport. Digitally Enabled Social Change : Activism in the Internet Age, MIT Press, 2014. ProQuest Ebook Central, https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/mountainviewhs-ebooks/detail.action?docID=3339227.EQ’sIs online activity for advocacy different in kind from traditional forms of advocacy? How does the online aspect (global audience, rapid Internet speed) impact the core of online social advocacy and the organization and participation of social movements? AnswerThe two key characteristics offered by web activism are 1) cost-effectiveness for creation, organization, and participation of social activism and 2) “mobilization” (there is less need for physical togetherness in order to act together. The more these characteristics are leveraged, the more impactful the changes to social activism. Source 8FactCastells, Manuel. Communication Power, Oxford University Press, 2009. ProQuest Ebook Central, https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/mountainviewhs-ebooks/detail.action?docID=472226.EQ’sHow have communication technologies transformed the global media industry? How has mass self-communication transformed power relationships?AnswerBecause of the Internet, our social systems can be locally based yet globally connected. These social systems are built by platforms like messaging, social networking sites, and blogs. Using examples such as the Iraq War, climate change, information in China and Russia, and the Obama campaign, a new theory of power should be proposed that is based on the management of ICTs. We should proceed by “reprogramming” communication technologies — creating new forms and new content to acquire new meaning. More ideas that challenge dominant ideas will be brought in by the greater autonomy of communication subjects. However, it should be noted that the governments, corporations, interest groups, etc. have made it a priority to tame the potential of mass self-communication networks. This Internet movement is expanding to seek more personal freedoms and harness a space of communication autonomy.Source 9FactFeatherstone, Liza. “CAUGHT IN THE WEB: Occupy the Internet.” New Labor Forum, vol. 21, no. 2, 2012, pp. 109–111. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/43681986.EQ’sFor the Occupy Wall Street social movement, how did mass media allow for the development and impact of this movement?AnswerOn Twitter, professional photographs sharply portrayed significant incidents at protests (photojournalism). Different websites such as occupytogether.org provided information about the movement and where to look for local activities. Online resources such as occupyourhomes.org provided information on foreclosure defenses, which helped to defend homes in poor neighborhoods. The Occupy Our Homes Facebook account also provided frequent updates. Viral videos have spread the word about the activist efforts and been widely shared. Source 10FactDe Bakker, Frank G. A., and Iina Hellsten. “Capturing Online Presence: Hyperlinks and Semantic Networks in Activist Group Websites on Corporate Social Responsibility.” Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 118, no. 4, 2013, pp. 807–823. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/42921267.EQ’sWhat are the possibilities and challenges for organizations given the rise of mass media communication? What are activists’ presence via websites? What are the differences in style and word usage in websites?AnswerThrough semantic co-words maps, it was identified that the presence of news items on websites shows the relevance of these news items for the activists’ causes. Activist groups’ websites reflect their objectives and the places and ways they can improve their presence online. Likewise, organizations should consider researching into firms’ officials. This would help involve additional methods and focuses.Interview Name & Contact InfoM. Gomez-Rodriguez, J. Leskovec, B. Schoelkopf of Stanford IRiSSWhy you want to interview this personPublished a paper at the ACM web search and data mining conference”Major social movements and events involving civil population, such as the Libyan’s civil war or Syria’s uprise, lead to an increased amount of information pathways among blogs as well as in the overall increase in the network centrality of blogs and social media sites.”