Some classrooms can also be transformed into new

Some m-learning
studies are conducted in outdoor environments (e.g., museums, botanical
gardens, and temples) (Charitonos, Blake, Scanlon, & Jones, 2012; Chen &
Huang, 2012; Hwang, Wu, Zhuang, & Huang, 2013; Lai, Chang, WenShiane, Fan, &
Wu, 2013). Mobile devices can support ?exible learning in a variety of
educational contexts. Traditional classrooms can also be transformed into new
learning spaces with mobile devices (Chen et al., 2012).

Several studies (Edens,
2008; Gauci, Dantas, Williams, & Kemm, 2009; Lu, Pein, Hansen, Nielsen, &
Stav, 2010) have explored the use of the student response system (SRS) in
classroom teaching. Through SRS, each student with a mobile device can
instantly and anonymously respond to classroom surveys and the questions of
their teachers (Davis, 2003), while instructors can instantly assess the
performance of their students and align their instructional techniques. SRS can
enhance classroom interactivity, student engagement, and motivation (Davis,
2003; Moredich & Moore, 2007; Siau, Sheng, & Nah, 2006).

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Given the
popularity of mobile phones with large screen among college students, many
instructors have begun to allow their students to use mobile phones to view
coursewares, browse the Internet, download educational materials, and ?nish
their classroom quizzes and surveys. Mobile phones have a huge potential to
promote active learning in the classroom (Lindquist et al., 2007).

Compared with
laptops, mobile phones are more portable and mobile, which can facilitate the
creation of a one-to-one learning environment. Moreover, the abundance of
mobile applications (commonly called mobile apps) for learning increases the
possibility of designing a variety of micro-learning activities in the
classroom, such as quick grouping, random questions, peer rating, and self-re?ection.
Echeverría et al. (2011) investigated how mobile phones could support
face-to-face collaborative learning in physics classes. Seol, Sharp, and Kim
(2011) argued that mobile phones could promote student inquiries in the
elementary classroom. Williams and Pence (2011) explored the application of
mobile phones in chemistry classes and found that these devices were powerful
tools in retrieving information immediately and performing simulation
experiments. Zhang (2013) used mobile phones to enhance student engagement in
EFL classes. Other studies have investigated the adoption of mobile phones in
classroom teaching and learning (Mittal, 2014; Thomas, O’Bannon, & Bolton,
2013).