UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE
FORESTRY, WILDLIFE AND TOURISM
FOREST AND ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS
MN 605: RESOURCE
INSTRUCTOR: Prof. E. Nzunda
STUDENT: MCHOME NICHOLAUS
COURSE; MSC MNRSA
REG No: MNR/D/2017/0010
HYPOTHESIS AND THEORIES GUIDE ASSESSMENT OF MIOMBO WOODLAND RESOURCE
A concept is a notion or
statement of an idea or thoughts expressing how something might be done or
accomplished that may lead to an accepted procedure.
assessing the miombo woodland resource concept based on evaluation, the methods
used rely on the present status which will guide future conditions of the
resource. Forest transitions—the change over time in the balance between forest
loss and forest gain within a geographic region—where both loss and gain are
defined in terms of tree canopy cover, (“Understanding Forest Ecosystems,” n.d.)
A hypothesis is a tentative
explanation for an observation phenomena or scientific problems that can be
tested by further investigation. It’s a stepping stone to a soon to be proven
theory. (Prasad, Rao, & Rehani, 2001)
assessing miombo woodland resource, null hypothesis used to test the relationship
between two variables of land area and loss of species and ecosystem services
due to utilization.
Theories are supposition
or system of an idea intended to explain something especially on based on
general principal independent of things to be explained, (Burton, 2007).
GUIDING FOREST RESOURCE
to (Nilsson, Ericson, & Duffey, 1992), rapid increase of population
has increased utilization which leads to overexploitation of natural resource
which in turn leads to extinction of some species. The biology scientists have
suggesting that, integrating of landscape ecology and population dynamics in space
and time. Restoration of pristine disturbance regime in nature is in the long
run of paramount importance.
(Kong, Yin, Nakagoshi, & Zong, 2010) explain about how Urban areas
can contain rich flora that contribute significantly to biodiversity, but loss
and isolation of habitats due to urban sprawl threaten biodiversity and warrant
limits on development. The connectivity provided by urban green spaces offers
habitats and corridors that help conserve biodiversity. Researchers and
planners have begun using landscape ecology principles to develop green space
networks and increase connectivity to preserve and restore biodiversity.
Urban green space is
increasingly encroached upon and fragmented as cities become denser to
accommodate population growth (Winsemius, Van Beek, Jongman, Ward, & Bouwman,
fragmentation, loss, and isolation seriously threaten biodiversity and are a
primary cause of the present extinction crisis (Winsemius et al., 2013)
Biodiversity is under
serious threat from human activities that lead to land use, fragmentation,
harvesting, hunting, pollution and climate change e.g. (de Chazal & Rounsevell, 2009) With
continued economic growth, it is likely that the pressure on current
biodiversity will increase. Nonetheless, conservation efforts–including public
expenditures– are not keeping up to adequately meets this pressure
to the country report concerning land cover change; (Repor, 2015) shows the major factor causing
deforestation in many parts of the country are exceptionally high rate of
timber removal, grazing and shifting cultivation and convention of natural
forest to various uses which lead to decrease of natural resources.
OF MIOMBO WOODLAND RESOURCE
(“National_Forest_Policy_1.Pdf,” n.d.), its overall goal of this Policy
is to enhance the contribution of the forest sector to the sustainable
development of Tanzania and the conservation and management of her natural
resources for the benefit of present and future generations. Also the policy
recognizes the high value of forests as well as the recycling and sequestering
of carbon, and conservation of important biodiversity, water catchments, and
the forest resource undergo pressure from increasing demand of for fuel wood,
fodder, timber and demand of forest land for other uses. 2/3 of the forest
situated at woodland in public land which lack proper management.
overall goal of the national forest policy is to enhance the contribution of
the forest sector to the sustainable development of her natural resource for
the benefit of present and future generations.
following is objective of forest sector
sustainable supply of forest products and services by maintaining sufficient
forest area under effective’s management.
employment and foreign exchange earnings through sustainable forest – based
industrial development and trade.
ecosystem stability through conservation of forest biodiversity, water
catchments and soil fertility; and
national capacity to manage and develop the forest sector in collaboration with
on above objectives, the four policy areas are;-
– based industries and products
conservation and management
and human resources.
environmental policy 1997
n.d.) provides the
framework for making fundamental changes that are needed to mainstream
environmental considerations into decision making in Tanzania. It ensures
sustainability, security and equitable use of resource for meeting the basic
needs of the present and future generation without degrading the environments.
In prevents and control degradation of land, water and vegetation by conserving
biological diversity of the unique ecosystem.
policy has identified six areas which needs urgent attention. These are;
degradation which reduce productivity of soil in many part of country
considerable national effort, over half the people in towns and in the countryside do not have access to good
and quality water for washing, cooking, drinking and bathing
in towns and the countryside is affecting the health of many people and lowered
the productivity of the environment
of habitat for wildlife I s threatening the national and creating an uncertain
future for the tourist industry
productivity of lake, river, coastal and marine waters is threatened by
pollution and poor management and
forest and woodland heritage is being reduced year by year through clearance for agriculture, for
woodfuel and for other demands.
ASSESSMENT IN PLANNING FOR THE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF MIOMBO WOODLAND
Good forest management is a powerful
conservation practice, which can reduce deforestation and maintain
environmental services, as well as a powerful development option that can help
reduce rural poverty and improve living conditions.
FOREST RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
to (Uddin & Hamiduzzaman, 2013); Public-private
partnership as thriving strategy in natural Management creates
responsible attitudes depending on stakeholder’s participation in forest
management and biodiversity conservation and green management and reducing deforestation through afforestation.
Although climate change poses a
risk to the most vulnerable poor in rural Tanzania, the challenge of developing
forest management strategies that meet the needs of the poor as well as those
of future generations is considerable. In Tanzania, PFM has attracted attention
to forest reserves and leakage to village lands. Little is known about how to
address the leakage and how permanent REDD+ projects will be. To address the
leakage and ensure the permanence of the REDD+ mechanism, more research is
needed on land use planning, conservation, and agroforestry practices, as well
as potential costs and implications for REDD+ in semiarid regions such as the
miombo woodlands of Tanzania., (Mustalahti, Bolin, Boyd, & Paavola, 2012)
to (Mwakisunga &
Majule, 2012), deforestation in tropics becomes a major source of carbon emission and
contribute to global warming. About 1.7 billion tons of carbon released due to
land use change and majority from tropical deforestation, the release of carbon
to the atmosphere affects concentration of carbon dioxide at the atmosphere.
Carbon concentration depends on tree species, age, and location of forest on
the land scape and management practiced imposed.
A forest management
allows landowner to maximize a mix of forest benefits, including wildlife,
timber, recreation, aesthetic value and other benefits. Because many changes to
a forest are seen over time, a plan is essential to guiding the future of your
A good plan combines the
natural and geographic characteristics of woodlot with the objectives to
produce a set of forest management recommendations.
Goals and Objectives –
The plan begins with a statement of the goals and objectives and is meant to
express what you desire for the future of the land. Few landowners have goals
that seek to maximize timber production, but many landowners are interested in
timber harvest activities that enhance wildlife, recreation, forest health, and
other forest benefits.
Maps – The maps denote your
property’s location, boundaries, forest stands and soil types.
Inventory – Examples include a
timber inventory complete with fill volume, stocking and species
information; an inventory of critical areas and/or endangered species;
biological inventory; descriptions of geological features, cultural
features, ecological communities and soil data. The intensity of the
survey can vary depending on your interests.
Activities – This part of the plan
provides detailed actions steps to meet the mentioned goals and
objectives. This includes a chronology of activities that will be done
each year over the next 10-year period.
to high increase of population in rural poor community, miombo woodland in sub-Saharan Africa will continue to be
converted to agriculture and utilised for the needs of local people. Methods to
be used to manage resource for the sustainability
Landscape management planning, it is likely that such utilization
will not be sustainable, with the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services
A comprehensive monitoring programme is necessary to monitor the
levels of utilisation and impacts on the woodland. Enforcement of current
restrictions of harvesting is required, as demonstrated by the overharvesting of
Forest management planning shall aim to maintain or
increase forests and other wooded areas and enhance the quality of the
economic, ecological, cultural and social values of forest resources, including
soil and water
Management plans or their equivalents shall include
at least a description of the current condition of the forest management unit,
long-term objectives; and the average annual allowable cut, including its
justification and, where relevant, the annually allowable exploitation of
non-timber forest products. The identification of annually allowable
exploitation of non-timber forest products is required where forest management
covers commercial exploitation of non-timber forest products at a level which
can have an impact on the long-term sustainability of non-timber forest
products. (Food and Agriculture Organization, 2015)
Burton, L. (2007). How to Approach a Study: Concepts, Hypotheses and
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Rounsevell, M. D. A. (2009). Land-use and climate change within assessments of
biodiversity change: A review. Global Environmental Change, 19(2),
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Organization. (2015). Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015 – Desk
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Kong, F., Yin, H.,
Nakagoshi, N., & Zong, Y. (2010). Urban green space network development for
biodiversity conservation: Identification based on graph theory and gravity
modeling. Landscape and Urban Planning, 95(1–2), 16–27.
Mustalahti, I., Bolin,
A., Boyd, E., & Paavola, J. (2012). Can REDD+ reconcile local priorities
and needs with global mitigation benefits? Lessons from angai forest, Tanzania.
Ecology and Society, 17(1).
Mwakisunga, B., &
Majule, a E. (2012). The influence of
altitude and management on carbon stock quantities in rungwe forest , southern
highland of Tanzania. Open Journal of Ecology, 2(4), 214–221.
Nilsson, S. G.,
Ericson, L., & Duffey, E. (1992). Conservation of plant and animal
populations in theory and practice. Ecological Principles of Nature
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& Rehani, E. (2001). Developing hypothesis and research question. 500
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