Risk · Environmental pollution and destruction of

related to corrosion of oil and gas facilities have been given in 2 main

Explosion/fire; facility collapse

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Environmental pollution and destruction of
the ecosystem

to corrosion of facilities, if leakage takes place, explosion or fire will
occur with a great probability, contingent on being a delay or sudden release,
explosion will have negatively affect both facility and personnel. The risk of
occurrence is determined through likelihood of that event happening and the
final outcomes, which may be in the form of damage to the facility, reputation
loss, casualties or mortalities and so on. For instance, 30-inch natural gas
pipeline ruptured and explosion caused 12 people death in Carlsbad, New Mexico
(19.08.2000) 17.

outcomes of leakage because of facility corrosion, can be environmental
pollution and destruction of ecosystem. In order to find the overall risk,
probability of leakage happening should be multiplied by the resulting
outcomes, which may entire the destruction of aquatic life and loss of human
life as a result of food from aquatic organisms, including cleanup cost of
spilled oil and gases. The oil tanker accident – Erika in the Bay of Biscay
(France, 1999) can be shown as an instance. The main reason of the accident was
internal corrosion and oil leakage caused environment disaster but not
casualties or mortalities 18.

Corrosion protection methods

Internal Coatings

One of the main reason of internal
corrosion of pipeline is water in the content of fluid that flows through
pipeline. In order to prevent internal corrosion internal coatings are used
depending on environmental conditions and the way that pipe serves. With
internal coating of pipeline, roughness of pipeline will decrease and pressure
loss will decrease as a result efficiency increases 19. At the same time
pigging operations and other pre-commissioning operations will be reduced.
Epoxies, urethanes and phenolics are the main coating types used as internal
linings. Taking several characteristics into consideration such as suitable
hardness, chemical and water resistance, flexibility and adhesion Epoxy based
materials are widely used for internal coatings. For example, Tenaris Pipeline
Service Company depending on customer requirements suggest the anti-corrosion options
below which has been provided on webpage 20: