The “Army of the Indus” as it was called captured Kandhar in April 1839, and Ghazni in July.
Dost Muhammad was so disheartened by these defeats that he gave up the fight and fled to Bemian, a town to the North-West of Kabul.
Shah Shuja was made the ruler of Afghanistan. British troops, however, instead of withdrawing to India began to garrison Kabul, Jalalabad, Kandhar, and Ghazni.
Meanwhile, in September 1840, Dost Muhammad was able to get military help from the Wali of Kholoom.
He attacked the English in September but failed. He was forced to surrender in November and was sent to Calcutta as a prisoner.
In the spring of 1841, however, popular unrest against the English started. Open rebellion broke out at many points in September 1841. The English in Kabul town were killed and their cantonment beseiged.
The same happened at Ghazni, Jalalabad, and Kandhar; and the entire Cdrkha batallion at Kohistan was done to death.
In December finally, the English were forced to accept the humiliating condition of evacuating Afghanistan within three days.
The retreating forces were in turn attacked on the snow covered passes and substantially annihilated.
By May 1842, however, the English forces were able to regroup and re-establish control over Jalalabad and Kandhar.
Then with the help of reinforcements from India Kabul was re-taken in September. The costs of this victory were, however, too high.
Quite apart from the cost in men and money, the Afghan War proved that the British Indian armies were not invincible and could be defeated with suitatjle tactics as those used by the hill tribes of Afghanistan.
Henceforth the English decided to confine themselves within the North-West Frontier and not venture into Afghanistan militarily.