Rates 0.69 kg/(capita· day) (Directory of Municipality of

Rates of solid waste production are subject to certain
variables, such as population density, levels and types of economic activity,
and the income level of the population (Al-Ansari, 2013). In 2010 United Nation
(2010) established that the rate of solid waste generated in low income countries
was 0.9 – 0.4 kg/(capita. day), whilst the rates for middle and high-income countries
were 0.5 – 1.1 and 1.1 – 5.07 kg/(capita. day) respectively (Al-Ansari, 2013).

The rate of solid waste generated in Sulaymaniyah
Governorate in 2009 was 0.69 kg/(capita· day) (Directory of Municipality
of  Sulaymaniyah city ). This value is
considered very low and is unsatisfactory, compared with the waste generation
rates for both Iraq as a whole and for Baghdad (the capital of Iraq), which
were 1.01 and 1.47 kg/(capita· day) respectively. This rate is also low in
comparison with the international standard value of 1.5 kg/(capita· day) (Iraqi
Ministry of Municipalities and Public Works, 2009). The figures for the
generation of solid waste per capita for Sulaymaniyah city would position it as
middle income in relation to the figures of the Department of Economic and
Social Affairs of the UN in 2010 (Iraqi Ministry of Municipalities and Public
Works, 2009; Al-Ansari, 2013). The total population of Sulaymaniyah Governorate
in  2016 was 2084492 ( inhabitants
(Kurdistan Region statistics office) based on the population growth rate of
2.99%. According to (World Bank, 2015), the annual population growth of Iraq is
2.5% for years 2010-2014. The quantity of solid waste generated in Sulaymaniyah
Governorate in 2016 was 604107 tonnes (Sulaymaniyah directory of municipality).
Generation rate of solid waste in 2016 was 0.794 kg/(capita· day) in the
Sulaymaniyah city depending on calculation methods which are explained below.
The rate for Sulaymaniyah city as a function of population density. Based on the
information cited in the records of the Ministry of Planning Sulaymaniyah
statistics office, an attempt was made to calculate the future expected of  solid waste in Sulaymaniyah city for the year
2032. This was achieved using series of Equations using two methods as follow:

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