Proposed can be important for its healing qualities.

Proposed
title: Black pepper: Common spice or something more?

Research
question: What are the practical medical uses of Black pepper?
Should it be considered as a viable option? What other things could pepper be
used for?

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Proposed
thesis statement: Black pepper has amazing potential
culturally in spices and even in sunscreen and perfume, but also has serious
implications in the medical field as well.

Reference
list:

1)      Srinivasan, K. Black Pepper and its
Pungent Principle-Piperine: A Review of Diverse Physiological Effects. Critical Reviews in Food Science and
Nutrition Vol. 47, Iss. 8, 2007

This article
is mostly explaining how black pepper is one of the most important and widely
used spices, as it is used in over 26 countries all together producing over
315,000 tons of pepper. Black pepper is valued for its smell and of course
flavor which comes from its oils. The article goes on to look at creation and
trade of pepper, as well as gathering and harvesting and testing of the pepper
before its shipped. It also explains the chemical composition and what
components and applications of its structure can be important for its healing
qualities. This is a book chapter written at the Indian Institute of Spices
Research, so a reliable source of information. It is relevant in the fact that
it gives me information about black peppers importance and chemical makeup.

2)      Greenshields,
A. L., Doucette, C. D., Sutton, K. M., Madera, L., Annan, H., Yaffe, P. B.,
& … Hoskin, D. W. (2015). Piperine inhibits the growth and motility of
triple-negative breast cancer cells. Cancer
Letters, 357(1), 129-140. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2014.11.017

This article is actually a very complicated article to
understand, and it is more a medical article explaining the true composition of
pepper and how piperine (and alkaloid from black pepper) can actually inhibit
growth of certain breast cancer cells. It explains the science of how it works,
from specific cells that are attacking important proteins and other cells. This
article was created by a team of doctors and scientist at different universities
across the country of Canada. This article is relevant because it gives
information about how piperine can have healing effects against cancer of all
things.

3)      Kaleem,
M. (2004, July 19). Protective Effects Of Piper Nigrum And Vinca Rosea In
Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats. Indian J
Physiol Pharmacol

This was more a scientific study of diabetic rats fed
piper nigrum seeds to lower blood pressure of them and reduce serum
lipids.  They found that the piper was
returning insulin levels on the treated rats. At the end of the experiment they
found that their results suggested that treatment with piper nigrum are useful
in controlling glucose and lipid levels as well as strengthening antioxidant
potential. This article comes from the Department of Biochemistry at AMU, and
is a published experiment.

4)     
Morales,
J. (n.d.). The Roman and Islamic spice trade: New archaeological evidence.
Retrieved February 18, 2016 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

Nair, K. P. (2004). The Agronomy And Economy Of
Black Pepper (Piper Nigrum L.) — The “King Of Spices.”.Advances In Agronomy, 82271-388.

 

The Roman and Islamic spice trade is an essay uncovering
archaeological evidence of black peppers uses in the spice trade. It goes over
some of black peppers transportation around those roman and Islamic periods, as
well as some other spices that were actually found in rituals such as funerals
or maybe offerings, in perfume and of course medicine. This essay came from the
School of Archaeology and Ancient History at the University of Leicester and
contributes to my essay in giving a little bit of history in the black pepper
trade.

 

5)     
Zhongwu, Z., Jianxin, W., Yao, L., Zongyan, D.,
Rongzhen, P., Min, Z., & Jinghua, Y. (2015). Effects of Slow-release Fertilizer
and Balanced Fertilization on Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Uptake in
Peppers. Agricultural Science &
Technology,16(7), 1457-1461.

 

This article is another experiment of the effects
of the chemical composition of peppers used in certain percentages to be used
as an effective fertilizer. In this application, chemicals like the nitrogen or
potassium are slow release compound fertilizers, so peppers composition can be
added to fertilizer to essentially better it as well as reduce environmental
pollution. This article can be resourceful in explaining how black pepper can
be used to increase the efficiency of fertilizer. This article was created by
the WuChu Science and Culture Media Corporation and they are reputable in being
a valuable source of information.

 

6)     
Xiong, Wu., Li, Z., Liu, H., Xue, C., Zhang, R., Wu,
H., … Liang, W. (2015). The Effect of Long-Term Continuous Cropping of Black
Pepper on Soil Bacterial Communities as Determined by 454 Pyrosequencing. PLoS One, 10(8), e0136946.

 

This article looks to examine the long-term
cropping with pepper effects, as the longer use can significantly decline soil
pH, organic matter contents, and enzymatic activities which decrease bacterial
abundance and alters local soil microbial communities and structures. This can
unfortunately result in poor growth in continuous cropping explicitly. This
experiment comes from PLOS One and can give a bit of a different view on the
effect of peppers in certain situations, as it can’t be perfect with
everything.

 

7)      Parim,
B., Harishankar, N., Balaji, M., Pothana, S., & Sajjalaguddam, R. R.
(2015). Effects of Piper nigrum extracts: Restorative perspectives of high-fat
diet-induced changes on lipid profile, body composition, and hormones in
Sprague-Dawley rats. Pharmaceutical Biology, 53(9), 1318-1328.
doi:10.3109/13880209.2014.980585

This article, much like the earlier article of feeding
pepper to rats to help lower blood sugar and such, this experiment looks to
restore lipid profiles in rats, and change their body composition and hormone
levels to bring their body fat and blood sugar levels down. It again proves
that piper nigrum extracts significantly reduce body weight, fat percentage and
hyperlipidemia. This experiment was performed by the department of biochemistry
at SVU in India, again as a scientific article, and can be used to justify the
previous experiments credibility.

8)      Zhang,
J., Hu, Q., Xu, C., Liu, S., & Li, C. (2016). Key Microbiota Identification
Using Functional Gene Analysis during Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Peeling. Plos
One, 11(10), e0165206. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0165206

This article looks to find what sort of microbes found
in pepper during its peeling process. The microbes found in the pepper are what
are being widely used in medicine and health care. This one just goes to try to
prove that the microbes are healthy into biodegradation for pepper peeling and
promotion of the pepper industry. This experiment is from PLOS One and is
heavily referenced and has plenty of contributors to justify its credibility,
and will be used to prove its usability in the medical field.