Pankaj Wireless Sensor Network, ZigBee, Arduino, home

Pankaj Malviya                                                                                                                       Deep

Information Technology Dept.                                                                                               Information
Technology Dept.

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Thakur College of Engineering
& Technology                                                                      Thakur
College of Engineering & Technology

Mumbai, India                                                                                                                        Mumbai,

[email protected]                                                                                                 [email protected]

Kautilya Joshi

Information Technology Dept.

Thakur College of Engineering & Technology

Mumbai, India

[email protected]



Zahir Aalam

Information Technology Dept.

Thakur College of Engineering & Technology

Mumbai, India            




Abstract— Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have attracted much
attention in recent years. The potential applications of WSNs are immense. They
are used for collecting, storing and sharing sensed data. WSNs have been used
for various applications including habitat monitoring, agriculture, nuclear
reactor control, security and tactical surveillance. The WSN system developed
in this project is for use in environmental parameter monitoring such as
temperature, humidity, and light intensity detection. The aim of this project
is to create a wireless sensor network for environmental sensing and control.
The IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee)standard has been implemented for wireless
communication among the nodes with the network motes (sensing nodes) designed
to include temperature sensing, humidity sensing, and light intensity sensing
functionalities by using various available environmental sensors such as DHT11
sensor for temperature and humidity sensing and photo resistors to detect light
intensity. The base station hosts a web application that enables the user to
check real time sensor data as well as control the connected devices via the
website. The website also displays data about the connected devices such as
when it was last switched ON/OFF, how much time has passed since then. The
sensor successfully controls the connected home appliances with the future
scope of expanding it throughout the city to sense and measure environmental
data such as air pollution or water pollution in local water bodies.

Wireless Sensor Network, ZigBee, Arduino, home automation, temperature
measurement, humidity measurement, light intensity measurement



Wireless sensor network is a technology for wide range of
wireless environments. Recently more research work has been done in direction
to develop wireless network that works on low power, low data rate, low cost
personal area network. Many organisation have developed WSNs for smart home,
smart farm, smart hospital for patient monitoring, for traffic monitoring, fire
monitoring in smart cities and home automation. Sensor nodes fulfil tasks
such as data gathering, data processing and communication and it makes it
possible to follow the physical event. The sensor nodes collect data such as
temperature, pressure, humidity, movement. Many sensor nodes, which distributed
to the different areas and observed physical events, constitute to Wireless
Sensor Networks. Basically a wireless sensor network consists of a hundreds of
sensor nodes that communicate wirelessly and spread over a certain area in
order to monitor a physical event. Wireless sensor network has no
infrastructure and topology and the sensor nodes are placed randomly.
Therefore, Wireless Sensor Networks should be able to work different areas and
different conditions and should be able to organize their own networks. The
importance and application has increased by the recent delivery of the IEEE
802.15.4 standard and the forthcoming ZigBee standard. The ZigBee Alliance has
developed very low-cost, very low-power consumption, wireless communications
standard for network and application layer to fulfil the demand of automation
and remote control applications. IEEE 802.15.4 committee started working on a
low data rate standard a short while later for physical and MAC sub layer. Then
the ZigBee Alliance and the IEEE decided to join forces and ZigBee is the
commercial name for this technology. 

ZigBee is expected to provide low cost and low power
connectivity for equipment that needs very long battery life as several months
to several years but does not require data transfer rates as high as those
enabled by Bluetooth. ZigBee can also be implemented larger networks than is
possible with Bluetooth. ZigBee compliant wireless devices operate in the
unlicensed RF worldwide (2.4GHz global, 915MHz Americas or 868 MHz Europe). The
data rate is 250kbps at 2.4GHz, 40kbps at 915MHz and 20kbps at 868MHz.

the control of various home appliances using this system facilitates human
life, provides comfort and security to the user. In some cases, the automated
devices also provide great energy consumption that helps user to decrease their
expenses. Devices which are controlled can be anything that we use consistently
in daily lives such as curtains, blinds, lighting (lamps, tube lights), air
conditioning (heating, cooling), central heating boiler, small scale irrigation
systems for personal gardens or even multimedia devices such as Televisions.


A Literature review surveys
scholarly articles, books, dissertations conference proceeding and other
resources which are relevant to particular issue, area of research or theory
and provide context for dissertations by identifying past research tells a
story and existing literature helps us identifying where we are in the story

Key Findings as per the publications 
referred that hardware consisted of electronic circuitry where a
microcontroller is the principal processing unit. A graphical user interface is  also 
implemented. Database is designed for comparison between past and
present testing results. Research gaps in order to enhance the system even
further, multiple identical sensor nodes could be introduced. This would turn
the master/slave (2 node star) topology into a mesh network. The communication
range inside the mine can be increased by using smart mesh network.

Key Findings as per the publications 
referred that To design a real-time monitoring system (RTMS) for a
patient by measuring the temperature using Temperature sensor (LM335Z)
Real-time data is recorded which could be helpful for the corrective treatment
by health care professionals Research gaps are More reliable and extensible
topology implemented within budget.

Key Findings as per the publications 
referred that To design a wireless Sensor Network using TCN 75, PIC
16f877 and Zigbee to respond any emergency and inform appropriate individuals
in a timely and cost effective manner. Research gaps Better accuracy of sensor
within adequate range of measurement with added feature of measuring humidity.

Key Findings as per the publications 
referred that  Smart home system
has been developed that performs monitoring and control in the environment for
temperature, humidity, light and sound information’s using Light Sensor TSL2561
is used SGSM Module for communication Research gaps Use of better  light sensor with wider range of measurement
and also a prompt to user via SMS before switching ON/OFF the appliances.


There are several WSN
hardware platforms available. In our prototype system, we chose our hardware platform
to base on Arduino microcontroller board and an XBee S2 module. Our network
consists of various motes with different sensors such as DHT11 for temperature
and humidity sensing and BH1750 sensor for Light intensity sensing.  Many organizations have developed WSNs for
smart home, smart farm, smart hospital for patient monitoring, for traffic
monitoring in VANET, fire monitoring in smart cities and home automation. The
importance and application has increased by the recent delivery of the IEEE
802.15.4 standard and the forthcoming ZigBee standard.


1: After identifying the gap in Reference 1 the use of
XBee series 1 module is substituted by XBee Series 2C module and the sensor
TCN75 is substituted by the sensor DHT11 which will be added to the mote(sensor
node). The DHT11 sensor provides a cheaper and adequate range of measurement as
an alternative over the TCN75 sensor with added feature of measuring relative

2: After identifying the gap in Reference 2 the use of
mesh topology is implemented over star topology as it provides higher degree of
reliability as a failed node may result in automatic re-routing of the data
packets. Use of DHT11 sensor is also used which provides digital output over
the analog output provided by LM335A sensor with better accuracy. WAMP server
is used to host web application over XAMPP server.

3: After identifying the gap in Reference 3 the use of
XBee series 1 module is substituted by XBee Series 2C module which provides
greater range, better power down current consumption and optional use of mesh

4: After identifying the gap in Reference 4 the use of
TSL2561 is substitutes by BH1750 which offers wider range of measuring
capacity. The Web application is also used to send a prompt to the user to ask
permission to switch ON/OFF the appliance instead of directly switching it
ON/OFF and just notifying the user about it.



Technical Feasibility – Here
one has to test, whether the proposed system can be developed using existing
technology or not. It is evident that the necessary hardware and software are
available for development and implementation of the proposed system. Hence, the
solution is technically feasible.


Feasibility – As part of this, the costs and benefits associated with the proposed system compared and the
project is economically feasible only if tangible or intangible benefits
outweigh costs. The system development costs will be significant. So the
proposed system is economically feasible.

Legal Feasibility – Legal
issues can affect a system’s acceptance by Bottom of Form users,
its performance, or the decisions on whether to use it in the first place so it
is best to consider these explicitly in system design. Clearly, the behavior of
those being enrolled and recognized can influence the accuracy and
effectiveness of virtually any log analysing system.


Feasibility – It is a standard that ensures interoperability
without stifling competition and innovation among users, to the benefit of the
public both in terms of cost and service quality. The proposed system is
acceptable to users. So the proposed system is operationally feasible. 


Social Feasibility

The acceptability of a log analysis system depends on the social and cultural
values of the participant populations. A careful analysis and articulation of
these issues and their identification can improve both acceptability and




We present the application of
developing a wireless sensor network with temperature, humidity, and light
intensity measuring capabilities. In this study, we have developed a small
scale wireless network for automating home appliances by sensing environmental
data and both, giving the user the control the devices according to his/her
liking or putting the system to an auto mode which controls the connected
devices in accordance with the data collected by the sensors by setting
threshold values.

we collect the environmental data by our sensor motes in areas we want to
observe. The data collected by the sensor are then forwarded to the micro
controller it’s attached to (Arduino Uno in our case) which converts it into
suitable form for wireless communication and forwards it to the wireless ZigBee
modules. The reduced-function devices then send their respective data to the
base station which uploads the received data to the website it hosts.

                The website displays the real time data that the base
station receives from various motes and it also display some information about
the connected devices such as the last time the device was last switched ON/OFF
and how much time has elapsed after that.

                The website also contains an “AUTO” toggle button which
enables the user to enable/disable the system to automate the connected devices
according the environmental data received. When ON, the system has control over
the devices too meaning that the system is able to turn ON/OFF the devices and
notify the user when the observed environmental data values cross a threshold.


Figure: Flowchart


A flowchart is a diagram that
depicts a process, system or computer algorithm. They are widely used in
multiple fields to study, document, plan, improve, and communicate
often-complex processes in clear, easy-to-understand diagrams. The below figure
is the flowchart that explains the basic working of our Wireless Sensor

The below flowchart depicts how our
system keeps on monitoring the environment using various environmental sensors
until it is switched off. One more thing about ZigBee modules is that they
enter sleep mode whenever they are not required to sense or just forward any
signal that leads to efficient energy consumption.




Figure: System
block diagram


and Humidity sensor:

DHT11 digital temperature and humidity sensor is a composite Sensor
contains a calibrated digital signal output of the temperature and humidity.
Application of a dedicated digital modules collection technology and the
temperature and humidity sensing technology, to ensure that the product has
high reliability and excellent long-term stability. The sensor includes a
resistive sense of wet components and an NTC temperature measurement devices,
and connected with a high-performance 8-bit microcontroller.



Figure: DHT11 sensor



Each DHT11 element is strictly
calibrated in the laboratory that is extremely accurate on humidity
calibration. The calibration coefficients are stored as programs in the OTP
memory, which are used by the sensor’s internal signal detecting process. The
single-wire serial interface makes system integration quick and easy. Its small
size, low power consumption and up-to-20 meter signal transmission making it
the best choice for various applications, including those most demanding ones.
The component is 4-pin single row pin package. It is convenient to connect and
special packages can be provided according to users’ request.

DHT11 connection



Note: 3Pin
– Null

Micro-computer Unit



This is a BH1750 light intensity sensor breakout
board with a 16 bit AD converter built-in which can directly output a digital
signal, there is no need for complicated calculations. This is a more accurate
and easier to use version of the simple photo resistor which only outputs a
voltage that needs to be calculated in order to obtain meaningful data. With
the BH1750 Light sensor intensity can be directly measured by the lux meter,
without needing to make calculations. The data which is output by this sensor
is directly output in Lux (Lx). When objects which are lighted in homogeneous
get the 1 lx luminous flux in one square meter , their light intensity is 1lx.
Sometimes to take good advantage of the illuminant, you can add a reflector to
the illuminant. So that there will be more luminous flux in some directions and
it can increase the illumination of the target surface.

Light Range: 0 –
65535 lux

Power Supply:
3.3V – 5V

Sensor Built-in:
16 bit AD converter


Figure: BH1750




The Digi XBee S2 modules have been
used in our system for wireless communication using ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4/LR
WPAN) standard. All the Reduced Function Devices (end nodes) send their
respective data to the base station to be uploaded onto the website.



The base station comprises of a
ZigBee module attached onto an Arduino microcontroller board. This node also
hosts a website which the user can access to check the real time environmental



The website displays the real time
environmental data collected by the sensory motes as well as current status of
the connected devices. The website also has an auto button that
enabled/disables the system to control the connected devices by itself without
any human intervention.






                The wireless system will help to
monitor neighbouring environment depending on the sensors used. The data
collected by our system helps to control the devices that will result in us
being able to control the environment as well.



                The wireless system will help to monitor neighboring
environment depending on the sensors used. The data collected by our system helps
to control the devices that will result in us being able to control the
environment as well.



Figure: DHT11 to Arduino


The connection in a sensor node (mote) is shown in
the above screenshot. The code in the above screenshot was written and compiled
in Arduino environment and the resultant hex file’s path was included inside
the Arduino board’s setting. BHT11 sensor is connected to the Arduino with the
output from the DHT11 sensor being connected to Arduino’s Digital PIN 3.


Figure: ZigBee module connection


The PD1/TXD PIN of the Arduino is connected to the virtual terminal’s RXD
PIN in this connection. Then the Virtual Terminals output pin, i.e., TXD is
connected to the ZigBee module’s input RX PIN.


Figure: system connection


The Sensing node in our simulation does the work of sensing the
environmental data through the sensor, passing it on to the virtual terminal
and then to the ZigBee module which transmits the data to the other ZigBee
module on the receiving side. The purpose of receiving node in this simulation
is just to display the real time data that achieved by connecting the virtual
terminal directly to the ZigBee module of the second node.


Figure: DHT11 sensor output


After running the above simulation, we can observe
that the second terminal window in the diagram is displaying real time
environmental data. The second widow is the second (receiver) node’s terminal
window. The first terminal window doesn’t display the data because the data
passed into it is forwarded to the ZigBee module via is output TXD PIN.


 c. Percentage improvement in results
(comparison of results reported & results achieved)

Identification  accuracy in sensors = 71%



GSM Module

For future use, a GSM module can also be implemented
in our project for the user to control the connected devices directly via Short
Message Service(SMS) without logging onto the website. This will further
increase the usability of our system by allowing the user to interact with the
devices in multiple ways in case of any uncertainty.



Wider range of network coverage

The coverage area is currently restricted due to
ZigBee’s poor coverage distance. Other wireless technologies like WIFI modules
can be used instead of ZigBee to cover a wider range of area covered under the network
which may allow the system to be deployed over an entire city for smart use of
government controlled devices such as street lights for more efficient energy
consumption or fog machines used in polluted cities to be automatically enabled
when needed.





wireless network constructed solves the problem of human error in switching OFF
appliance by automatically determining when and how to control electronic
devices by measuring certain environment parameters. The wireless network
constructed provides a way to automate home appliances with the help of sensory
motes connected to each by the wireless ZigBee protocol that supports low power
consumption, low cost and low but reliable data rate for transmission of data

 Thus, the
proposed solution will be implemented.



1Valdo Henriques and Reza Malekian (Member, IEEE), “Mine
Safety System Using Wireless Sensor Network”, “Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineering Access”, ISSN: “2169-3536” on Volume: 4, 16 June 2016, Pages: 3511 – 3521.


2Omar S. Alwan, K. Prahald Rao, “Dedicated
real-time monitoring system for health care using ZigBee”, “Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Access”, ISSN:” 2053-3713″ on Volume: 4, Issue: 4, 8 2017, Pages: 142 – 144.


3S.S.Sarade, Prof.A.C.Joshi, Sachin S. Patil,
A.N.Shinde, “Wireless  Temperature Monitoring System Using Wireless
Sensor  Networks”, “International
Journal of Advanced Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering”,
ISSN: 2278 –
909X on Volume
1, Issue 4, October 2012.


4Murat Dener, “Intelligent Home System Design
Using Wireless Sensor Networks”, “Research World International Conference,
Istanbul, Turkey”, ISBN: 978-93-86291-69-1 on Vol. 3, Issue. 2, 27th December 2016.