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Abstract
Krokodil or desomorphine is a drug that has affected many lives in Russia and European countries. It is a synthetically version of heroin and it is highly addictive. There is no real cure to addiction, but many ways of treating it. One of ways the addiction be a potential cure is with an African root called ibogaine, which is a psychedelic drug. In this experiment the drug called radix is given to the rats that were exposed to desomorphine. The brain waves of the rats were tested as well as their heart rate. The second experiment consisted of exposure to the drug and cure and the rats having to choose their path they rather take at the end of the experiment. The results showed high wave lengths in the theta and delta waves. The results for the second experiment showed that 3 out of 5 rats preferred the chamber where the radix was administered. 
       Keywords: desomorphine, krokodil, ibogaine, psychedelic   

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Psychedelic Drug to treat Krokodil Addiction 

1. Introduction 
Krokodil or desomorphine is an extremely addictive drug that is fairly new to the society. This drug is the cheap version of heroin and it’s much stronger. The drug can be made at home in about thirty minutes with codeine pills and cooked with paint thinner, gasoline, hydrochloric acid, iodine, and the red phosphorous from matchbox strike pads. This liquid that is created is injected into the vein. The high lasts for about 90 minutes to 2 hours. This drug is extremely cheap and very easy to make. It is called krokodil because the skin of an addict becomes green, scaly, and bumpy like a crocodile’s skin. Especially around the area where the injection was done, the skin rots there. If the injection misses the vein and goes into the skin, the flesh will develop abscesses. The body parts where the injections were done will rot off and can leave just bone. It’s also common for a development of gangrene and requires amputations. There are so many risks doing this drug, such as blood vessel damage, open ulcers, blood poisoning, meningitis, rotting gums, tooth loss, blood-borne virus transmission (HIV/HCV due to sharing needles), pneumonia, memory loss, liver and kidney damage, overdose, and death (Grund, Latypov, Harris, 2013).  
In 1932, desomorphine had historical use in Switzerland under the brand name called Permonid. It was found to produce a faster onset and shorter duration when compared to other pain relievers. When compared to morphine, desomorphine had less effects after being taken, such as dizziness, vomiting, and reduced the need for catheterization use. The use of desomorphine continued for patients with serious cases of trauma. It was more efficient and the dosage was less. For every 1 mg of desomorphine used on patients, 10 mg of morphine had to be used for the same kind of pain relief. Comparing the sleep that patients were getting was 91.8% produced on desomorphine and 80.5% produced on morphine. However, there was a downfall to desomorphine, which was it wearied off quicker and caused faster withdrawal. There was no real advantage of desomorphine over morphine due these affects (Matiuk, 2014). In 1932 the chemical was originally synthesized, but it was patent in 1934 by an American chemist named Lyndon Frederick Small. It was a drug that was placed on the shelf but didn’t last long because of its short-shelf life and being highly addictive (Grunt et al., 2013). 
Krokodil is fairly new drug to the society, but it is starting to spread out quickly. Around 2002-2003 in Russia is when the epidemic started and started from Siberia, Russia. It spread quickly and reached other countries, such as Georgia, Germany, Kazakhstan, Czech Republic, France, Belgium, Sweden, Norway, Ukraine, and United States. It is highly concentrated used in Russia and Ukraine. The victims that are usually affected are young people between the ages of 18 and 25 (Minns, 2014). The main source of the drugs, which is codeine pills, had an increase in purchasing them and this caused a ban in them in 21 regions of Russia. After 2012, codeine pills are prescribed only (Matiuk, 2014). 
The addiction of this drug is a serious target in Russia, which is something that is concerning because of the future generations. According to other research the way to potentially cure this addiction is by using an opioid antagonist, such as suboxone. This drug will block the receptor that krokodil binds to and the body will not have an effect on the drug. Also, this drug allows some to enter the body to ease off on the side effects that will come with the withdrawal period. It allows the withdrawal period to be decreased while treating the addiction. There is another way to treat this addiction and it is by using a psychedelic drug called ibogaine. The drug is naturally found in the root bark of a Central African plant called Tabernanthe iboga. Ibogaine produces a psychedelic state that there are visual hallucinations, which are often associated with prior life events and the end goal is for them to not return after 72 hours. The tests and research that has been done show the cravings and withdrawal to the drug does not happen, specifically opiates ad cocaine addiction. The National Institute on Drugs Abuse (NIDA) in mid-1990s considered this drug as a potential treatment, but there are risks to take into consideration. In New Zealand, this is a licensed treatment to addiction. There has been over 3,000 people have taken ibogaine and treated their drug addiction (Morgan, McAndrew, Stevens, Nutt, & Lawn, 2016). There has been very little study done on this drug, which is why it’s illegal in many countries, including the United States. 
For this hypothetical study that will be conducted the root ibogaine will be used to treat the rats. This drug will called radix, which translates to root in Latin. 
2. Experiment 1: Development of Dose Response Curves 
Introduce the experiment on establishing dose response curves in one brief paragraph.  Briefly describe the animal model you used, and be sure to cite where it came from! 
2.1 Methods
2.1.1 Subjects Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study. The colony was from in-bread from NCTR located in Kingston, NY. The rats were housed under controlled conditions of a stable environment of 22 degrees Celsius, 45-55% range of humanity, a proportional light: dark ratio of 12 hour each, and standard water and food always available. On test day, the rats were transferred from their homes to recording laboratory (Binienda, Beaudon, Thorn, Prapurna, Johnson, Fogle, Slikker, Ali, 1998). 
2.1.2 Apparatus- An EEG was used to test the rats’ brains waves during the injection of radix. A platinum subdermal EEG electrodes that was installed on a cranium. A software that was on a computer called Data Wave Technology recorded the findings (Binienda et al., 1998). 

2.1.3 Procedure The rats had to be exposed to drugs before starting the procedure. All ten rats were exposed to desomorphine for five days straight. This creates an enforced addiction, which needs to be treated and tested on. The experiment begins by the baseline of the first thirty-minute was recorded of the EEG of the rats. This followed an injection of anesthetized with isoflurane (1.5-1.8% end tidal concentration). Ten of the rats received a dosage of 50-mg/kg-radix dissolved in deionized water. The other ten rats received anesthetized and saline to serve as independent control. Both groups were recorded for two hours. After the EEG recordings, the rats were sacrificed and their brains were dissected into three parts: frontal cortex, caudate nucleus, and brain stem. The concentrations of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and metabolites were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (Binienda et al., 1998). 
2.1.4 Statistical Analysis The p value indicates the statical hypothesis of the probability to obtain the test statistic and view the value in the result. The value has to be lower than 0.05, which is the critical value. The results show that after the injection of the radix the waves were significant. As Table 3 shows the results of the p-values of the EEG waves. The delta wave at t(1,15)=0.02, p<0.05, this shows that the results had a significant value and the same results were for t(16,30)=0.02, p<0.02. The results continue to be significant throughout the testing for the delta waves. Theta waves showed significant results in t(1,15)=0.02, p<0.05, t(16,30)=0.03, p<0.05, and t(46,60)=0.03, p<0.05. Alpha waves showed significances at t(1,15)=0.0009, p<0.05, and t(16,30)=0.02, p<0.05. Beta waves showed t(1,15)=0.0006, p<0.05, t(16,30)=0.002, p<0.05, and t(31,45)=0.04, p<0.05.  2.2 Results & Discussion After the treatment was administered the heart rate decreased. The alpha, beta, and theta bands that were low to begin with returned to norms with the drug being in the system within sixty minutes. The control group had the same heart rate before and after saline administered. Comparing the DA concentration between the two groups, the rats with radix had higher concentrations than the control. This examination is important to understand because we have to know how this drug will affect the body, the levels of dopamine, and heart rate. It's important to understand a drug before taking on what kind of affects if may cause to the body without just targeting the problem. The brain waves from the EEG were analyzed and recorded. The delta, theta, and alpha bands were recorded from the EEG. The alpha wave is response for the relaxation level in the system. The theta wave represents emotional connection and creativity. The delta wave is reasonable for sleeping pattern and deepest sleep patterns. The waves showed high waves for the delta, mostly high waves for the theta waves, and alpha had a few peaks high, but mostly low. This shows the level of relaxation wasn't so high, but the creative mind was awake. According to Table 1, the affective dosage for treating rats with an addiction problem with this drug is taking in 50mg/kg. This is right amount of dosage to treat the rate and not kill or make it ill .the lowest dosage of radix that should be taken is 15 mg/kg to feel a slight affect and the maximum dosages that should be taken is 70 mg/kg.  Above that will make the rat sick and may be lethal.  3. Experiment 2: Abuse Potential To test the subjects on abuse potential of the drug therapy, the method and dosage were narrowed down. In the previous rats from NCTR were used and will be used for this experiment as well. There will be a setup designed to self-administer the drug and test the addiction level of the rats after (Binienda et al., 1998). 3.1 Methods 3.1.1 Subjects – Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were also used in the study. The colony was from in-bread from NCTR located in Kingston, NY. These rats were not exposed to any drugs prior this testing (Binienda et al. 1998).   3.1.2 Apparatus- Rats were placed in a chamber that had neutral ground, unpaired side, and paired side (Wit & Stewart 1981).  3.1.3 Procedure- The rats that were placed in the paired chamber were exposed to the drugs, desormophine. They were exposed to it for two days. The rats were given 10 mg/kg of desomorphine every other hour due its high toxicity. The rats pressed a lever to get the drug, but not every time they pressed they received the actual drug. They received a placebo to replace the drug, so they won't overdoes. The total amount of desomorphine that was administered was 120 mg/kg for the two days. The following day the rats were placed in a second chamber, which they were administered radix of 10 mg/kg. The same exact way by allowing the rats to hit a lever to get the drug. The total amount of radix was administered then they were placed in a neutral chamber after two days of spending in the chamber where ibogaine was administered. The neutral chamber opened up the two chambers and allowed the rats to choose where they wanted to go. Out of the 5 rats that were tested the three rats went to the radix chamber, but the two went to the chamber where they were exposed to desomorphine.  3.2 Results & Discussion The experiment showed that the radix does work, but not for everyone. There is the risk of relapse that may happen. Three out of five rats went to the chamber where radix was administered, but two out of five went to the chamber where desomophine was administered.  In previous studies, there has been downfalls of this drug as well. This drug has been tested on humans with success and complications. The reason this drug isn't so successful is due to the relapse. Previous treatment show that 1 out of 7 people are cured from their addiction, after one treatment of radix. Several treatments are needed to be successful. Also, going into a rehab center is highly recommended to be talked into bringing positivity into their lives and to learn how not to go back into old habits. The treatment is only successful with several treatments, a full course of rehab, and change the surrounding of your home.   4. General Discussion In this study we investigated the effect of radix on drug addiction specifically the addiction on desomorphine. The first experiment shows how much of ibogaine is successful and tolerable to be taken. This experiment also showed the dopamine levels under the drug and how the drug affects the heart rate. The brain waves under the drug influence were more towards the creative mind aspect and exploring within the mind. They also showed that the state of deep sleep was high as well.  The limitations to this experiment is that the drug isn't well studied and it is illegal in the United States. It can't be tested in the United States on humans, but in other countries it has been tested and used as a treatment. Also, the sample of rats was a small sample for both experiments. The addiction to krokodil or desomorphine is not seen in the United States as much as it is on the other side of the world, which also limits on the study of this addiction.