Ovulation therefore means having no ability to carry

Ovulation
which is the release an egg from ovaries can be a problem for women with
anovulation because this means no ovulation happens causing infertility, this
can happen because of many types of conditions such as PCOS which causes a
hormonal imbalance of testosterone in body which is a male hormone and
irregular menstrual cycle this is bad because it would mean that eggs aren’t
going to be released regularly so sperm wouldn’t be able to fertilise egg for
conception.

Another
problem that can cause anovulation is endometriosis which is a condition where
the tissue lining of the womb grows outside of there to other body parts like
the fallopian tube which can cause damage to the ovaries meaning difficulty in becoming
pregnant, this can also cause blocked fallopian tubes which is bad because this
would mean that sperm and egg wouldn’t be able to become fertilized as this is
the tube they meet inside, however if one fallopian tube is blocked this is
less likely to have affect as it could still be possible for fertilisation in
the other side.

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 Also another condition is being under weight
for example suffering from anorexia this can cause conceptions problems because
you will become very thin therefore means having no ability to carry a baby so
you would stop ovulating, another eating disorder is being overweight for
example having diabetes this would increase the risks happening when becoming
pregnant such as miscarriages which is losing the baby or risk the baby being
born early, even though this could happen to anyone who is not overweight the
chances are higher when overweight.

 Abnormalities in oocyte development can happen
as women age which also causes problems with conception because of a higher
risk of miscarriages, and higher risk of child being born with a genetic
disorder down’s syndrome which is because of a trisomy condition meaning there
is extra copies of chromosomes in the egg, turners syndrome is another genetic
disorder a child risks of being born as a women ages because of monosomy
condition which is child having parts of diploid chromosomes missing. These are
both aneuploidy as there aren’t the correct amount of chromosomes  in gamete nucleus as the usual which is 46
chromosome zygote, 23 haploid each, from male and female gamete because of
abnormal chromosomes.

Hypothyroidism
this is when thyroid glands don’t produce enough of hormones that are important
and can cause infertility because the low levels of hormone can mean that this
interferes with ovulation, this can be treated by medication which stops
hormones producing more hormones that aren’t needed or surgery which removes
thyroid for example if they are swollen badly however this would mean that
medication is needed to be taken after because of not having a thyroid.

When you
start to get older the number of eggs and quality start to decrease which is
known as menopause, so you are more likely to have issues if you become
pregnant at an older stage like after the age of 40 there is a higher risk of
miscarriages and there could be genetic disorders because of congenital birth
defects which is a condition developed before or after giving birth and
ovulation stops and uterine environment changes.

Most
conception problems for females can be treated for example a hysterectomy is a
surgery to treat these problems like for cancer or for menopause by removing
the uterus but will mean that you will not be able to become pregnant after and
does have complications such as could cause damage to the bladder or cause
infection.

 Another treatment can be a hormone replacement
therapy which helps manage the symptoms of menopause like mood swings and hot
flashes, it also helps prevent bones from becoming weaker but does have
complications as it cause side effects like headaches and nausea and on the
more serious side can cause higher risk of getting cancer.

When having
ovulation problems such as a low supply of FSH hormone, fertility medicines can
be taken to help with this by helping to improve and stimulate ovulation so the
eggs mature which is good because this means that an egg will be released for
fertilisation therefore to conceive, but if the medicines don’t work then
surgery can be used for example for endometriosis a laparoscopic surgery and
this destroys the cysts which are fluid sac. Another type of surgery you could
have is fallopian tube surgery which is for fallopian tubes that have scars or
blocked, this would need to be fixed by making sure the eggs go through the
tubes much simpler which is done by breaking up the scar tissue, however this
will have complications such as a fertilized egg that implants an ectopic
pregnancy which is when an egg that has been fertilised implants outside the
uterus like inside fallopian tube so will have to be removed and there will be
no pregnancy.

Intrauterine
insemination which is artificial insemination can be used by from donors or
partner by inserting sperm into uterus, when doing this the sperm collected are
the best quality sperm which have a fast mobility with oval head and long tail
which is the morphology of sperm. IVF which can also help with fertilisation by
fertilising an egg outside the body in a petri dish with a sperm from the eggs
that are removed from ovaries and after this is completed its put inside back
into the uterus.

Male

Sperm can
also be a cause of infertility in men for example a low sperm count can mean
that there is a lower chance of fertilising an egg, or sperm that has an
abnormal shape this is bad because it means that it will be harder for the
sperm to swim to the egg for it to become fertilised. Epididymis is inside the
testicles which contains and transports sperm but this can become blocked
meaning that sperm cannot be ejaculated which can also cause infertility,
however this can be treated by surgery to stop the blockage which is good as
this increases chances of sperm being able to fertilise egg and therefore be
able to fertilise an egg.

Erectile
dysfunction is the inability to get and maintain an erection this means that
penetrative sex which is the way that sexual reproduction work is to take sperm
from male to female’s cervix and this means that it will be difficult to
deliver the sperm. It can happen because of many problems such as with age,
high blood pressure, and depression. The treatment depends on the cause for
example if there is a hormone problem then testosterone is a hormone
replacement to help treat the problem and a medicine called Viagra can be taken
to increase pressure of blood flowing in order to achieve an erection.

Antibodies
these are part of the immune system which are for protection and support but if
the barriers between sperm and blood break down which can happen because of
surgery or infection and sertoli cells for support and protection will be
attacked by the white blood cells because they are seen as invaders that
shouldn’t be there therefore act as a defence and develop anti perm antibodies
meaning that the sperm would then have very slow movement causing infertility,
this can also be treated with IVF.