Introduction focused on this particular area (organizational behavior)


Organizations often rely on human resource to implement set goals. The exploitation of the human resource capacity will always remain an important driver in implementing normal duties, purposes and goals of organizations.

As such, the behavior of employees will always remain an important element of interest to organizations. The control, regulation, monitoring and enhancement of desired behavior in workers are therefore an important area of interest to organizations.

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So as to stimulate specific goals and achieve optimal performance from workers, it is useful to explore ways of stimulating fruitful behaviors from workers. Often, drastic changes in the behavior of workers may be required in an organization so as to achieve shifting goals.

An example of such an instance may occur during rebranding, change in marketing, or a need to increase output. Such instances may call for a corresponding change in the behavior of employees. In this paper, I have explored several ways in which organizational behavior can be applied so as to develop specific and desirable behaviors from employees. Here, I have explored and analyzed several academic literatures that have focused on this particular area (organizational behavior) of interest.

One of the issues that have been of interest to researchers in the area of organizational behavior is the issue of cultural intelligence. Here (so as to understand how diverse cultures at the workplace can be used for the benefit of increasing the output of workers) the characteristics of diverse cultures and values in the composition of workers are studied (Kevin, 2011). It is expected that in a few years to come, most of the employees in the United States will consist of current minorities.

In the next four decades, African Americans and Hispanics alone are expected to form more than half of the employees in the US (Kevin, 2011). In fact, by 2050, Hispanics, blacks, and Asians will compose half of the American population (Kevin, 2011). With a view of enhancing, and maintaining high productivity in organizations, it is therefore useful to study how such a change in the composition of employees may affect the output of employees.

In such a study, a demand for leaders with ability to unify and direct units with a diverse cultural composition is seen. Such leaders will be able to direct, motivate, and lead groups of employees from different ethnic groups, and with diverse values. Leaders that have the skills I have described above can be described as culturally intelligent.

A culturally intelligent individual is one that has a capacity to operate optimally in an environment that is composed of multiple cultures. Three is a need for a culturally intelligent person to be aware of multiple perspectives on issues, which can originate from different cultural backgrounds. With such knowledge, one can revise and adjust his perspectives so as to amalgamate, and work with individuals from diverse cultures (Kevin, 2011).

Several researches including the one done by Kevin have tried to establish a relationship between cultural intelligence and output (Kevin, 2011). Theoretically, it is not difficult to see the positive relationship between cultural intelligence and the output of employees. However, there has been a limited empirical approach on the above relationship.

In their research, Kevin et al. used an empirical approach to study the relationship between cultural intelligence and performance (Kevin, 2011). The sample of their study consisted of departmental and managerial leaders that were in charge of groups that consisted of individuals with diverse cultural backgrounds (Kevin, 2011).

The management of a culturally diverse group so as to enhance output is a useful skill that will remain desirable for organizational leaders (Thomas, 2009).

The interest will always remain to create an enhancing environment that can collectively utilize talents from a culturally diverse workforce (Thomas, 2009). Currently, there is a shortage of culturally intelligent leaders in organizations. Many managers do not have high degrees of cultural intelligence which are required for the emerging workforce of culturally mixed employees.

A culturally diverse workforce will continue to emerge as many companies open and amalgamate their offices in various localities around the globe (Thomas, 2009). Apart from shifting demographics, economic globalization is therefore one among several factors that will fuel a more culturally diverse workforce in the future.

Thus, the need for leaders with cultural intelligence cannot be ignored. At trend where there could be a shortage of cultural intelligent leaders in the future may especially occur since the subject on cultural that touch on intelligence has not yet been incorporated in several professional curricula on organizational leadership (Kevin, 2011).

Still, it is noteworthy to observe that, to some extent, similar catalysts of performance that apply on a homogenous group of employees are applicable to a culturally diverse workforce. Such issues include the motivation of employees, the exploitation and enhancement of talents and the enhancement of discipline (Thomas, 2009). One does not therefore need to overhaul the whole management approach; rather, a leader will need to apply an existing approach to a cultural diverse workforce in an effective way.

As I had mentioned earlier, it is often necessary for an organizational leadership to effect change in a behavior of employees so as to initiate specific goals (Thomas, 2009). Such could be the case in situations of rebranding, and a desire to increase the market share of products.

Since it is always difficult to effect change within an organization, several studies have tried to understand the causes of this (effecting change) difficulty. In order to design a successful process of organizational change, it may be important to consider various elements that involve in the process of change. So as to stimulate a change in behaviors within an organization, a general belief is the necessity for leaders to focus on an approach that progressively engages with employees (Higgs, 2011).

On the other hand, a solitary and a non consultative approach will hardly be effective in implementing desired change within an organization. However, while some researchers have emphasized on the assumption that a change process in an organization is often dependant on the leadership that is effecting the change, some have argued that such a notion is not always true.

An examination of various parameters within an organization may be useful in understanding the process of change within an organization. Among such parameters include issues on structural adjustments, the capacity of employees, and change of timelines, among others.

Therefore, although the importance of leaders in effecting behavior change within organizations cannot be ignored, it is useful to explore how the capacity of leaders to effect change in an organization interacts with other important parameters that help to bring change (Berson, 2008).

So as to understand organizational change, we can consider three models of study on organizational change. In the shaping model, the focus is mainly on the behavior of organizational leaders in effecting change within an organization (Higgs, 2011). Often, such leaders will exhibit the following characteristics.

Often, they use past experiences to design and implement a process of change within an organization. Besides, they normally distribute tasks to specific employees, and demand feedback and accountability from employees that have been assigned specific tasks.

Moreover, while holding to their perspectives and beliefs, such leaders are usually authoritative and overbearing in implementing organizational change. Another approach that may be employed to effect organizational change is through framing. Here, so as to initiate a process of change, an organizational leader will endeavor to relate with employees at an emotional level.

Such a direction will often help such a leader to bring out set goals that have necessitated change in an organization. In such a process, such a leader is often aware of dynamics that affect the pattern of initiated change in an organization. Such a leader is often desired to sacrifice personal desires and needs to widely work with all employees so as to effect change. Another approach that can be employed in effecting change is through the use of a creating technique.

Here, with recognition of diverse capabilities and talents in a workforce, creating leaders will often assign their workers with different emotional and physical roles that are desirable for implementing change. Thus, people are free to exploit their diverse capabilities as they learn on improving the organization’s system of change. Often, such an approach is applicable in situations where a leader has a high degree of trust and confidence in the workforce that has been assigned with the role of implementing change (Higgs, 2011).

In their study on organizational change, Higgs and Rawlings were able to show that for leaders to successfully effect change in their organizations, there is a need for them to adapt a creative and framing approach of effecting change.

Moreover, their research was able to show that it is often easier and fruitful for a change process to be effected from the low hierarchical employees to the top management (Higgs, 2011). Here, a change process should encompass the active involvement of all employees. In a suitable environment, it is often useful to adopt the process of change that has been described above.

However, depending on the environment, it may be fruitful to employ a different approach of change than the one that has been described above (Higgs, 2011). For example, it is hardly practical for a leader to adapt a creative approach in instances where he does not completely trust his workforce. Such trust will often rely on the capabilities and past experiences with his employees.

Therefore, while a combination of a creative and framing approach may be most useful in helping to effectively drive change within organizations, it is useful for a manager to understand his work environment so as to select an appropriate approach of driving change in his organization (Berson, 2008). It is thus useful for a leader to be creative and flexible while implementing change within an organization.

As it is often required, such a leader will be required to motivate, guide and include his workforce in implementing change within his organization. Since the leadership approaches on organizational change that I have described above are not an end in themselves irrespective of the approaches on change that they may have adopted, it is useful for leaders to be realistic and creative in effecting change (Higgs, 2011).

Below is an evaluation of an interview, which can help us to understand the process of organizational change better (Don, 2011). The director of Brooklyn Public library (Ginnie Cooper) was interviewed by Thomas about some on challenges faced while implementing changes in the library.

Overseeing a project on infrastructure, and implementing a complete change is the Brooklyn Public Library’s system were some of the important issues that were discussed in this interview (Don, 2011). Cooper understands leadership as a process of directing employees to implement a priority of changes, and goals in an institution.

As a leader in his library, specific goals of his library would include providing educational support to institutions, meeting the educational objectives of the government, and offering a wide array of literature to library users. With emerging challenges, there is a need for Brooklyn library to implement a number of changes in its system so as to serve the society better.

Such changes have been necessitated by an increasing number of library visitors, and technological changes that have affected reading behaviors. With such changes, Cooper has been able to recognize a need for library workers to frequently update and present desirable literatures to the increasing number of library visitors. Moreover, there has been a need for the Brooklyn library to adopt technological changes while presenting information to readers (For example through online presentation) (Don, 2011).

Copper does not just consider himself as a person in charge of library activities; rather, he has a responsibility of implementing a new library system at the Brooklyn library. So as to understand how he could improve the library system at Brooklyn, Cooper decided to visit other libraries in the neighborhood of Brooklyn public library. Here, he interacted with the public and various library employees so as to understand public expectations.

Furthermore, in an effort to understand the expectations of the public, he placed five types of bins at various localities in the neighborhood of Brooklyn with tags that guided the public to drop in written opinions on specific areas of interest to the library (Berson, 2008). With such a system in place, the management of Brooklyn’s public library is thus able to cater for the views of the public in its initiatives and programs (Don, 2011).

In cooper’s view, the management that is often burdened by the difficult of tasks is the middle management (Don, 2011). So as to promote leadership at his library, cooper implemented a training program with an initial target of 35 employees.

So as to understand the common difficulties that come with managing the library, the new managers were each assigned managerial duties for a single day (Don, 2011). The intention of the program above was to help in building a fruitful partnership between various departments at the library required for smooth library operations.

Among the challenges that have been faced by Cooper in running the Brooklyn public library is a deficit of budget funds. Instead of selecting specific models on budgeting that could help him in tackling the challenge of budget strains, Cooper decided to adopt a different approach; he decided to strike a balance between available expenditure and the library needs of the public. Here, deciding on priority programs is based on the impact of such programs in serving the public better.

According to this direction of measuring priorities, instead of buying more materials for the main library, it was more prudent for cooper to prioritize boosting literature materials at branch libraries (Don, 2011).

It is useful to note some of the important parameters in Cooper’s style of management which have helped to positively effect change at the Brooklyn’s public library (Bardi, 2003). As it is always useful for leaders, so as to effect any change, it is always fruitful to know about the drivers of such a change.

In the case of Cooper, the project to overhaul the entire system of the Brooklyn’s public library was not seen as just a program in itself, rather, so as to know the changes that were desired, multiple views of the public were considered. Besides it is always useful for a leader to be adaptive, innovative and involve his workers while implementing organizational change (Bardi, 2003).

Such a direction was the reason for the training of new managers at the Brooklyn’s public library. Moreover, it is also fruitful for leaders to explore positive ways of tackling challenges (such as budget deficits) that may be faced while implementing change in organizations.

Usually, the success of implementing change in organizations is often reliant of the perspectives of employees towards such changes. Several studies have been able to show the relationship between the rates of successful changes in organizations and the attitude of employees. Without the cooperation of employees, it is not possible for leaders to successfully implement changes in their organizations.

Here, it is useful for leaders to embrace fruitful relationships with their employees for beneficial cooperation in effecting change. Since the behavior of leaders can be associated with the pattern of attitudes and beliefs that develop in their workers, it is useful for leaders to adopt positive behaviors. Another important and determinant aspect that drives the attitude of workers in an organization is the value system of organizational leaders (Bardi, 2003).

A leader that has a self centered value system (rather that a self sacrificing system) may find it difficult to develop positive attitudes of change in his workforce. As such, the important challenge is for organizational managers to develop their leadership capabilities (which have been described above) so as to work with heir employees in effecting change.


The management of employees so as to yield positive behaviors from them (employees) which are often required to implement important changes in organizations will remain a critical role of managers. As I have described in this paper, such an effort is reliant on the capability of organizational leaders to develop and implement prerequisite behaviors within themselves and their employees.

Since organizational behavior is mostly reliant on the ability of leaders to develop certain attributes in their workers, it is fruitful for leaders to understand beneficial ways in which they can develop positive behaviors in their employees. With recognition of the value of their employees in implementing a change process, positive leaders will create an environment that would help to stimulate fruitful behaviors (necessary for desirable change) within themselves, and their workforce.

Reference List

Bardi, A. (2003). Values and behavior: Strength and structure of relations. Personality and Social Psychology 29, 1207-1220.

Berson, Y. (2008). CEO values, organizational culture and firm outcomes. Journal of Organizational Behavior 29, 615-633.

Don, M. (2010) Leadership or Management? Management Quarterly 2, 51, 31-45

Higgs, M (2011). What does it take to implement change successfully? Journal of Applied Science 47, 309

Kevin, S. (2011). Group and Organizational management Group & Organization Management 36, 535

Thomas, M. (2009) Library leadership & management Leadership and Management 23, 4, 177-9