Normally, stones mostly happen to adults, but children

Normally, the waste product from the blood is
filtered in the kidneys, but when it over accumulates, it may produce kidney
stones. Kidney Stones are small, solid pebbles that are made of minerals and
salts that form within your kidneys, and it may become painful. There could
many reasons for the formation of kidney stones because it implicates environmental and metabolic
risk factors. Kidney stones mostly happen to adults, but children and teenagers
can get them, too.  There are several treatments; how to treat it will depend on the type, the size
and the location of the stones either in the kidneys or the urinary
tract.

Kidney stones
affect about 5% of the world population. The peak age for kidney stones is
between 20 years old and 50 years old. Furthermore, the probability of having it is nearly 13% in men and 7% in
women. Family history may also increase the risk of getting kidney
stones. (University of Wisconsin
Hospitals and Clinics Authority, 2013)

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Kidney stones occur
in the urinary system. The urinary system is made of different organs, such as
the kidney, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The urinary system aids the body to get rid of waste, like urea. It also keeps
chemicals, such as potassium and sodium, and water in check.

The excretory system is conformed of other
different systems: urinary system, respiratory system, biliary system, and integumentary system. The main job of the excretory
system is to eliminate all waste the body produces that would otherwise interfere
with cellular function; it also regulates the content of the body’s fluid by limiting what and how much
can go out. In
other words, the body seeks to be in homeostasis to prevent any damage. To make
it simple, without the mechanisms that allow the human system to eliminate wastes,
humans would die of intoxication, as is the case when the kidneys or the liver
stop working. A clear example of the excretory in action is when cellular
respiration produces carbon dioxide and it is removed from our system by an
effective circulatory system and respiratory system, which are part of the
excretory system.

There are several organs and structures that
are involved in the excretory system: kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder,
urethra, lungs, skin, some glands, etc. But the ones affected by kidney stones
are only in the urinary system: kidneys, ureter, bladder, prostate, urethra. “The
kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, which are about the size of a fist” (NIDDK, 2014). Arguably, the
kidneys are the most important organs of this system. They do three essential things
that help to balance the body: purifying the blood (table 1.1), regulating
blood pressure and the amount of water in the body, and synthetizing hormones,
like erythropoietin which controls red blood cell production. Once the kidneys
have separated all waste, the urine goes from the kidneys to the bladder trough
the ureter which are muscular tubes that are about 28 centimeters long