No research for Czechoslovakia probe a decline in

No matter how the educational expansion has taken over
the years in all the industrialized countries, a plunge in educational
opportunity between socioeconomic strata is conspicuous. Some changes are
noticeable in equality of educational opportunity as cohort differences.  In terms of all industrial countries, the
twentieth century has noticed a period of increased bureaucratization and
rationalization. This has provided an even bigger work force in large and more
formalized organizations. (Blau and Duncan 1976) Also the gradual increase in
rationalization and bureaucratization of working life has enhanced the value
qualifications for job opportunities. (Blau and Duncan 1967; Arrow 1973; Spence
1973; Mincer 1974; Thurrow 1976). According to (Boudan 1974) if the extent of
inequalities in the educational system decline then the percentage of school
attendance will increase. This is due to the fact that the lower classes can
increase their attendance rates by more percentage points than the upper
classes whose percentage is already quite high.  Hauser (1976, 1978) reports that during the
first half of the twentieth century, the socioeconomic in schools has remained
stable.  It has been noted that the
schools usually favors those students who have cultural traits like society
values, attitude language skills and interactive skills which are already
imbibed in the children by the family members. Children who lack such societal
traits and cultural values are values and rewarded less by schools. ( Bourdieu
and Passeron 1964, 1977, 1966) In Netherlands, it has been noted that there was
a decline in the effect of father’s education as well as the father’s occupation
across cohorts, whereas in countries like Germany, England and Wales there has
not been any drastic change in the effects of indicator of social origin. In
countries like United States, Italy, Taiwan and Japan, the reports were quite
skeptical. There was a decrease in the effect of one variable and increase in
the effect of one variable. However, the research for Czechoslovakia probe a
decline in the effect of father’s education on the attainment for cohorts
educated immediately after the introduction of the socialist reforms. Although
there has been a homogenous inclination in the educational expansion, no such
upshot has been observed in the terms of educational inequality. In majority of
the cases, the expansion has not involved more noteworthy fairness of
instructive open door among financial strata. The former constituent is a
reflection of educational expansion, whereas the latter is a reflection of the
social and instructional arrangements which govern the educational selection of
different social strata. In majority of the countries except Switzerland, the
effects of social origins are at its peak at the beginning of the educational
transitions. In Netherlands the transitions to transitions to tertiary
education are so small that they are almost insignificant. Changes in the class
structure and the upgrading of the occupational distribution have increased the
demand for better education. On an average, children from farming families
attain less education on average than the children belonging to higher
socioeconomic origins.

In
what ways does boy’s masculinity impact how they enact their working-class
identities in Will’s ethnographic work?

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The article introduces a concept of labor power and how
it is applied to manual work. Labor work is the human ability to work on
natural resources with using gear to produce matters for the satisfaction of
desires and the reproduction of lifestyles. The procedures via which labor
strengths come to the subjectively understood and objectively applied and their
interrelationships are of profound importance for the sort of society which is
produced and the unique nature and formation of its training. These approaches
aid to build the identities of specific topics and also unique class paperwork
on the cultural and symbolic level as at the economic and structural
level.  Comparative studies were made
over a group of conformist lads belonging to a mixed secondary school and were
somewhat rougher school. The other group was bunch of nonconformist lads in the
single sex school in one of the most elite residential areas. Majority of the
lads smoked and went out with girls to show their so called macho. “. The staff
also had a lot of arguments over the dressing of the lads which was obviously
to look attractive. Wearing modern clothes made them look “cooler” at school
and it also helped them differentiate themselves from the “ear’oles” which was
one of the greatest targets for the lads. Technically, the lads not only
rejected the “lobes” but also felt superior to them because apparently the
lobes lacked fun, independence etc. the lads “look” included long well trimmed
hair, platform type shoes, wide collared shirts tucked in denim. The lads found
drinking as a symbolic importance. They felt it was like a connection with the
adults and contradictory to their school. Consuming maximum amount of alcohol
during lunchtime of their last semester was like a ritual and at closing time;
they left after exchanging some adult promises. However this incident landed
them in trouble as the school called the police since they smelled of alcohol.
This scared the lads, but the fear didn’t last long since the entire episode
was a “worth it” to the lads.

 They like
flaunting smoking in front of the staff because they feel this makes them more
masculine. The lads also visited the pubs frequently. The term “ear’ole” was
used for the school conformists which was itself an absurd idea they used this
term because ear is the least expressive organ in the body. It indicates they
are highly rigid people. The lads felt superior to the “ear’oles.

 What are the main characteristics of
each of the parenting styles Annette Lareau presents?  Is Lareau arguing that one style is better
than the other?  If not, what does Lareau
argue?

In this article, the researchers keenly focus on the
arenas of the influence of the parent’s education or parent’s involvement has
in child’s life. Most of the studies are descriptive, only few are dynamic.
Deep research work has been done on the utilization of time, time spent on work
by parents and how much time contributed by a child (Bianci 2000, bianci and Robinson
1997; Marsiglio 1991; Presser 1989; Zick and Bryant 1996). The observation was
done in 3 different families over a span of two months. The families were
grouped into social class categories based on the information provided by
educators.

Phase 2 took place in a north- eastern metropolitan area.
It was located in a predominantly white, working-class urban neighborhood. The
second site was “Susan” which was located in a suburban neighborhood. Only 10%
were middle class black children. The total number of children who participated
in the study was 88%. 32 from Midwest and 56 from the North East. On the basis
of the interviews and observations it was revealed that the crucial aspects of
family life cohered. The three key dimensions may be distinguished- The organization
of daily life, the usage of language and the social connections. The 3
dimensions do not really inform us everything about family life, but they do
tell us about the key aspects of child rearing.

Alexander Williams (case study 1)

His parents lived in a predominantly black middle class
neighborhood. He was the only child. Parents grew up in small towns in south
and are from large families. His father was a successful trial lawyer. He was a
very busy man. His mother was a high level manager in a major corporation.
She’s supposed to go on a trip at least once in a month. Alexander was a very
charming young boy. He was quite curious, inquisitive, loving and caring, He
participated in a number of activities like playing the guitar and photography
lessons. He complains about his mother signing him for several activities. He
seemed quite mad at his mother for not letting him have a friend over because
she did not want him to miss his piano and guitar lessons His parents believed
that these activities provide a wider range of benefits important for his
development. Pondering over Alexander’s situation we notice the sheer number of
activities which are though short lived but quite consuming. His parents seem
blind to his problems and troubles. They don’t really help him lift the burden
off his shoulders.  The parents did
foster their child’s development through involvement in music, sports and
academics. Though Mr. and Mrs. Williams valued family time, Alexander didn’t
really spend time with his relatives. The parents couldn’t really imagine
investing a lot of time in the child because of their extremely busy and hectic
routines.

Harold McAllister (case study 2)

He was a large, sturdy boy with a bright smile. He
belonged to a poor black family. He lived with his mother and an 8 year old
sister in a decent apartment. Harold has two older siblings but they lived with
their grandmother however they would sometimes stay with them in their
apartment too. Harold’s mother was a high school graduate who relied on public
assistance. Inside their cozy apartment, their life is humorous and lively with
a bunch of family members and everyone sharing the daily chores. Harold’s
mother had disdain towards mothers who would so substance abuse and not look
after their kids. She would also look after her nephews who frequently stayed
with them. Overall she saw herself as a capable independent mother who takes
care of not just her family but also the extended family. Harold was quite
sporty. He was fond of a couple of games like basketball and football and he
closely followed the matches on television. He would spend his leisure time in
the afternoon mostly playing sports with the neighborhood kids or his cousins
or watching television. Lureau clearly states that the class position
influenced a lot of critical aspects of family life. There is some stability
within class since not all social and family aspects are affected by social
class. Race did not really play a very powerful role in the kids’ lives. The
middle class parent took the initiative to develop a positive racial identity a
similar pattern was observed in white and black working class as well.

How
do Pamela Perry and Amanda Lewis conceptualize race?  How does this change the way you understand
race?  Why do you think both authors
chose to study schools as sites of racial identity formation?

Our understanding of race is very simple and different
from the way the authors describe it. According to us ‘race’ basically refers
to a group of people who have differences and similarities in biological
traits. We tend to differentiate people based on their physical traits like hair,
skin color, eye color etc. In education, race is fixed characteristics of
children that they bring to school and take away intact. The entire idea of
race is learned through social interaction and culture. In the article “race in
the schoolyard” race was conceptualized as something that the children learn
through interaction with peers and teachers whereas in “shades of white” race
was conceptualized as something which was influenced by the image of or beliefs
about specific people. Authors generally choose schools as sites of racial
identity formation because they have so many factors to look at, such as-

Curriculum- The authors like to study the explicit
curriculum so as to ensure it is a multicultural curriculum. In other words,
they like to see if the curriculum is more adapted to diverse cultures.

Lessons- The authors have the opportunity to study the
lessons and observe if they are more ambivalent or unambivalent.

Race-To study how many different communities study
together.

Racial differences- To study the difference in behaviors
of parents, teachers and staff members according to the different races.

The authors like to study about these in both covert and
overt ways. It gives them a broader idea to the entire concept of race and how
different people react to different races and the term ‘race’.