to promote the minimal use of water, improvement of soil health, and lower pollution levels in
the farm may be used by growers (Gofray and Garnett, 2014).
management by controlling water quality and quantity can also be done. Protection of air quality is also exhibited
by sustainable agriculture sue to minimal machineries. Ecosystem properties
such as biodiversity, equitability, sustainable, stability, and productivity
are also being demonstrated.
agricultural heritage that reflects the diversity value of agricultural systems
adapted to various environments tells an amazing story of the ability and
ingenuity of humans to adjust and adapt to the changing physical and material environment
from generation to generation. However, Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IDK) is
threatened by modernization thus threatens the sustainability of the
and rescue of the cultural and ecological foundations of these systems
including the wealth of accumulated knowledge and experience in the
management of soil and water resources
and other agrobiodiversity are very critical. (Koohafkan and Altieri 2010).
most traditional agricultural systems are constantly changing over time. The
major factors that influence the present agricultural changes according to Koohafkan
and Altieri (2010) are: “population increase and
dynamics, global market forces, advances in science and technology, climatic
change and variability, consumer demands, agricultural subsidies, and pressures
from social movements demanding food sovereignty, land reform, and poverty
reduction”. Responding to a rapidly changing world can be done by applying
agroecological principles by re-designing and optimizing small farming systems.
South Asia is facing the challenge
of providing enough water and energy to grow enough food for the growing population.
This is further aggravated with insufficient energy supply, limited land
resources, and growing stress on the environment. The agricultural sector is
directly affected by climate change. The center of new agricultural paradigms
for increase in temperature and exponential growth in population world ” must
be systems that close the loop of nutrient flows from microorganisms and plants
to animals and back, powered and irrigated as much as possible by sunlight and
seawater. This has the potential to decrease the land, energy, and freshwater
demands of agriculture, while at the same time ameliorating the pollution
currently associated with agricultural chemicals and animal waste ” as stated
by Federoff et. al. (2017).
The paper of Rasul (2014)
explores the energy, food, water interconnection from a regional dimension,
emphasizing the role of Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) ecosystem services in
sustaining food, water, and energy security downstream. Based on the study, issues
and challenges in the water, energy and food sectors are interwoven in complex
manner and cannot be managed effectively without cross-sectoral
integration. Since the activities of the upland areas will affect the
downstream areas, it is important to control inputs that will affect the
productivity of the lowlands.
and Chappell (2011) stated that we should not undermine the capacity of
agroecosystems to preserve biodiversity. Evidence show that the interdependence
of biodiversity and agriculture is essential. Their review supports the claim
that food insecurity and biodiversity loss can be both addressed by using
appropriate alternative agricultural practices.
Indigenous knowledge in
agricultural practices should be considered in maintaining a sustainable environment.
This type of knowledge encompasses the
skills, experiences and insights of people to improve and maintain their
livelihood. Below is the framework of indigenous knowledge on agricultural
systems (Figure 6).