Melanoma diagnosed in 2017, and of that 87,110

Melanoma is the formation of a skin cancer that develops
when producing cells known as melanocytes, evolve and become cancerous. An
individual can detect early signs of melanoma by daily examining moles and
other colored blemishes and freckles. (MacGill, 2018). Melanoma can surface
anywhere on the skin, but there are more common areas that it develops in than
others. In men, melanoma attacks the chest and back. In women, usually their
legs are the target site, but other common areas are the neck and face
(MacGill, 2018). According to the National Cancer Institute research, there was
a count of 87,110 new cases of Melanoma that was diagnosed in 2017, and of that
87,110 cases, researchers predicted that 9,730 will die (MacGill, 2018). This
is an important matter to the human health status because the World Health
Organization (WHO) notes that there were an estimated number of 60,000 early
deaths, which are detected world-wide every year because of uncontrolled exposure
to (UVR) ultraviolet radiation. Of those 60,0000 deaths, 48,000 were discovered
from malignant melanoma (WHO, 2006).

            Discovering melanoma prematurely is a vital skill for primary
healthcare practitioners. The Doctors use microscopic or photographic to view
the lesions in greater detail so when a doctor concludes skin cancer, the
patient is immediately referred to a cancer specialist and a biopsy will be in
place to test the lesion. A biopsy is when a sample of the lesion is taken for examination
(MacGill, 2018). It is also found that melanoma is labeled as an unordinary
tumor, Europeans countries exemplified this annual increase in incidence over
2%; in some northern European countries, however, no significant expansion was
noticed. In the United States dating from 1992 to 2005, there was a yearly
discover that the rates of melanoma in all races was 2.3% and 2.8% in the
Caucasian population. In, Queensland, Australia, there was an alarming incidence
rate of 1.4% in males and 0.7% for females, dating back to 1982 to 2001 (Bataille
& De Vries, 2008).

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            Over the past 30 years,
the incidence of melanoma has increased in most Caucasian populations. Though
there are multiple primary prevention programs, the commonly one used is   public
health education campaigns, which main goal is to decrease exposure to the sun,
which can also decrease the incidence rate. Some programs have yet to be proven
effective (Bataille & De Vries, 2008).  In January 1995 and December 1999, doctors
used The Nova Scotia Cancer Registry, to identify all patients diagnosed with primary
malignant melanomas. Data that was obtained was information on tumor thickness
based on pathology reports on melanoma lesions. 714 totaled the melanoma
diagnoses. Of this diagnose, 675 (94.5%) were primary diagnoses. (Di Quinzo, Dewer,
Burge & Veugelers, 2005).

            In 2011, CDC analyzed
melanoma incidence, mortality, and the cost of treating newly discovered diagnosed
melanomas until 2030. With this information, CDC configured the potential
melanoma cases and costs roughly through 2030 if there were to be a skin cancer
prevention program implemented in the United States. Reviewing results in 2011,
melanoma incidence rates were 19.7 per 100,00, and the death rate was 2.7 per
100,000. Incidences rates for Caucasian men and women were predicted to
increase futurity until 2019, since death rates are stable. The yearly price of
treatments for diagnosed melanomas was estimated to roughly increase from $457
million in 2011, to 1.6 billion in 2030 (CDC, 2015).

            Specifically, for this research, CDC
found six factors that contributes to the findings of melanoma limitations. “First, delays in melanoma
reporting might result in an underestimate of cases; reporting delays are more
common for cancers such as melanoma that are often diagnosed and treated in nonhospital
settings such as physicians’ offices. Second, incidence projections are based
on data that represent approximately 10% of the US population and have a lower
percentage of whites. Third, accurate confidence intervals are not available
for the incidence and death projections. Fourth, the impact of a skin cancer
prevention program is based on the assumption that a reduction in incidence
could be achieved in 5 years. Fifth, the impact of a prevention program is
extrapolated from a state in Australia to all of the United States, which has a
different underlying population and health care system. Finally, cost estimates
only include health care costs incurred in the initial year after diagnosis
(CDC, 2015).”

            In contrast, data
collected comparing of incidence and mortality suggest that lesions may never
progress if left ignored (Di Quinzio, 2005). The CDC (2015), collected
more data about this matter by using the United States Cancer Statistics (USCS)
to provide legit federal cancer incidence statistics from all states,
additionally utilizing data from the National Program of Cancer Registries and
the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. In 2011, CDC also
met USCS publication criteria, which represented 99.1% of the U.S population
reported melanomas.


















Bataille, V., & De Vries, E. (2008).

Melanoma: Part 1: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Prevention. BMJ:
British Medical Journal, 337(7681), 1287-1291. Retrieved from,

Di Quinzio, M., Dewar, R., Burge, F., &
Veugelers, P. (2005). Family Physician Visits and Early Recognition of
Melanoma. Canadian Journal of Public Health / Revue Canadienne De
Sante’e Publique, 96(2), 136-139. Retrieved from,

M. (2018, January 25). “What you should know about melanoma.” Medical News Today. Retrieved from,

Health Organization. (2006). Health consequences
of excessive solar UV radiation. Retrieved from,

for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015, June 5). Morbidity and Mortality
Weekly Report (MMWR). Vital Signs:
Melanoma Incidence and Mortality Trends and Projections­–United States, 1982-2030.

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