Literature the message of positive change in the

Literature Review

traces the recurrent presence of a ghost figure as Bond’s dramatization of
death- in- life, in the capitalist materialism of the contemporary world.

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2.Torma (2010)
criticizes Bond’s presentation of innocent character types like Len and
Gravedigger’s boy, being destroyed by the powerful capitalists, and considers
it a major failure of Bond’s drama in carrying the message of positive change
in the society.


3.Zapf (1988) dilates on the dramatization of the socialist and
Marxist goals in the plays of Bond and Brecht by comparing their concepts of a
rational theatre aimed at creating an acute consciousness of the exploitative
socio- economic power relations. This article gauges their theatre for enabling
the audience to develop critical faculties which are needed to actively engage
in understanding and solving their real life problems.

(1980, p.258-268)10 in his article, “Violence and Comic in the Plays of
Edward Bond”, traces the comical aspect of violence shown in Bond’s plays. It
is overt and comic

in their book, Literature and Western
Civilization  comment on the
portrayal of violence in the European drama. The motif of violence “forms the
core of drama as the literary genre from Greek tragedy to the present day
Theatre of Cruelty”(84).3

6.Although Bond
believes that violence provokes more violence yet his choice to employ it as a
medium to shake and change the status quo. In the summary of the article
entitled “On Violence and Justice in Modern Culture”, Miloševi? traces the
similarities in the presentation of violence in the works of Bond, Harold
Pinter and Peter Sellars. He highlights “the importance of personal struggle
for humaneness in an inhuman and unjust world” (587) in Bond’s drama. His
theatre presents the development of new, clearly defined goals like
self-esteem, freedom of the individual and fellow feelings besides economic
growth as a prerequisite for an effective and well-organized social action. The
new culture, as Bond envisions it, should provide amiable environment for human
growth and creativity.

7.Carney in
his essay “Edward Bond: Tragedy, Postmodernity, (2004,p. 8-9) The Woman”
expounds Bond’s concept of tragedy through the analysis of Bond’s dialectical
thinking as endorsed in his play The Woman. Carney argues that Bond’s
techniques of epic theatre are comparable with Brecht’s dramaturgy for serving
the political purpose of developing analytical thinking in the contemporary
world to solve the problem of growing violence.

8.Milovic, P. (2010:23), on the other hand, sheds light on the element of the
extraordinary in the ordinary protagonists in Bond’s trilogy of war plays.

9.Bond himself
comments that the precedence of money over human values has bred a sense of
alienation and apathy in the modern man. hndex

vividly analyses the dehumanizing processes that result in problems like wars,
crime, terrorism, poverty, interracial conflicts, psychological disarrays which
pose a growing threat to the quality of life in modern industrial society as
well as to human dignity.

10.In his book,Marx’s Concepts of Man describes the
industrial civilization which hampers the individual to achieve
self-realization through creativity. The mechanically specified nature of work
denies the worker a sense of freedom, fulfillment and self-respect. The culture
of manufacture and mass production hampers individual’s active participation in
the creation of his world. He defines the modern man’s experience of alienation
in the following words: Alienation (or estrangement) means for Marx, that man
does not experience himself as the acting agent in his grasp of the world, but
that the world (nature, others and he himself) remains alien to him. This
literature review attempts to identify the gap of showing the Marxist elements
in Bond’s plays, particularly in The Sea, to unveil the conflict between
the have and have-not and the superstructure established by the bourgeoisie
class, besides the themes of violence and injustice in the society.


us see what literature on the theme of violence is available. Webster’s
New World College Dictionary defines violence as “physical force used so as to
injure damage or destroy, extreme roughness of action” as well as “unjust or
callous use of power, as in violating another’s rights, sensibilities, etc.”
The motif of violence “forms the core of drama as the literary genre from Greek
tragedy to the present day Theatre of Cruelty” (Daiches&Thorlby, ,(can be
used as ref.)