LITERATURE for a wide and great social interaction,

LITERATURE REVIEW

 

 

Presently, the acts of bullying still increasing in
the Asian world, and Malaysia being one of them.  Unfortunately, Malaysia are having a high
percentage of kids being bullied in school. School bullying phenomenon in
Malaysia keep increasing and it happen in many forms, it can be verbal for
example threatening, gossiping about victim or else it can be physical form for
example hitting the victim.  The study will
be conducted among the students in primary school in Kedah.  The objectives of the research to know the roles
of playing, empathy and playing digital games in influencing the children to
bully their friends. 

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1          Introduction

 

The
act of bullying can be defined as a way of treating people roughly that is
repeated by one student or in a group towards others and leaving the victim
helpless with the intent of showing their strength and power.  Apparently school must be the place where the
children have their great memories, the place where they start making friends
and start interaction each other. 
Supposedly, school’s life would give for a wide and great social
interaction, however it’s being blocked because the cases of bullying actively
happen in school.  The dreams for
children to have a good memories and a good friends, then  the school become shatters where bullying
appears, because those will be replaced with acts of hatred, traumatic, and
more children isolated from other friends.  
Generally, bullying is a negative attitude, for the purpose to make the
victim become uncomfortable and insecure (Khalim & Norshidah, 2014).

Huizinga
(1938) play means has its own organizational forces, purpose and spaces.   The book discussed the importance of the
play element of culture and society. 
Huizinga suggests that play is primarily to and a necessary condition of
the generation of culture.  Play is a
voluntary act or activity, that within certain limits set by time and place be
carried out into willingly accepted, but totally controlled by our own
rule.  All play is a free act and also
freedom.  Play has its own space and it
can create order.  The combination of
both and real freedom are common traits of games.   In addition, every games have their own
rules, once the rules are breaks by the player they are called as game
breakers.  Hence, play is the most
natural, fun and rewarding way to explore new learning development.

DeVoe
et al. (2005) stated that the issues of bullying continues to get the
researchers, educators, parents and student’s attention.  Even the bully are happen in school it can
affect the future life of student or not impossible it can affect their whole
life too.  And about 1600,000 student are
trauma to go to school because of bullying (Edwards, 2004).

Based
on Khalim (2014), bullying are categorized into two types (i) direct of
bullying and (ii) indirect of bullying.  Direct
bullying involves in physical contact for example pushing, hitting, kicking or
any aggressive behavior that can cause injuries toward victims.  In addition, the most violent physical
bullying may cause death.  Besides,
indirect bullying are commonly involve the verbal contact.  For example insulting and teasing for the
purpose to effects the victim’s psychological and emotional.  However, both type of bullies are danger and
considered as serious because it can affect the victim emotional and social
development. 

Its
happen widely in Malaysia, and the recent cases are caused death.  It was happened to 21 years old the
third-year electrical engineering student from Universiti Pertahanan Nasional
Malaysia (UPNM). The victim was physically torture by the group of student for
the reasons of suspecting him stealing the laptop, he was died with the bruises
and burn marks on his chest, hand and feet, caused by an electric iron (The
Malaysia mail online, 17 Jun 2017).  This
incident is a very serious matter and getting high concern from teachers,
parents and the Ministry of Education.

Thus,
the act of bullying should be emphasized and targeting start from young age and
at the same time encourage the children to understand about bully and how to
know they were unintendedly bullying their friends.  So that, the aim of the researcher conducting
this study are to see (1) play activities in influencing the children toward
bullying (2) children’s empathy in influencing the acts of bully and lastly (3)
playing digital games influence children to do bullying.  

 

 

2.1          The Importance of Playing

 

Play simply defined as activity
for own sake, it can be characterized by the process of playing is more
important than the goals, flexibility and positive affect in which children
often smile and enjoy their play time. 
Almost all children love to play, except those who are malnourished or
have severe disabilities.  In addition, obesity
in children can cause the increasing spending hours in watching television
(Rideout, Vandewater, & Wartella, 2003).  

Play is important because it is a
central to self-regulation or children’s ability to manage the own behavior and
emotions.  Barnett & Storm (1981)
stated that self-regulation is important to our origin of what it means to be
human in which it is the foundation to make choice and decision making, for
mastery of higher cognitive processes, and also for morality.  Else, playing allow children to use their
creativity in the same time help to develop their imagination, dexterity,
physical, cognitive and emotional strength. 
Of course playing are the good activities, they are important for
healthy brain development.

Based on Undiyaundeye (2013)
stated that play opens the foundation in a child’s life and informs the
children to do with movement, observation, relationships, and emotions.  In addition, play time is learning time for
young children and learning through play used in education and psychology to define
and describe how children learn to make sense of the world around them.  It is prove enough that through playing they
can develop social and cognitive skills, mature emotionally and gain
self-confidence in facing the new experiences and environments.  Lastly, it help children to make sense of
their world and possess a natural curiosity to explore. Therefore, through play
children being able to learn to act kind to friend, teachers and others and at
the same time reducing the case of bullying.

Others, it aids children to grow
and develop in many ways including physically, emotionally, socially and
intellectually.  If children play in
positive area so they will act simultaneously towards others.  At times, most of the parents are worry that
children are “just playing” and not learning things they need to learn.
(Sharman 2012 & Rogers & Sawyers 1998).

 

2.2          Behavioral Effects of Playing Digital Games (Bullying)

 

Interactive media, such as video and computer games,
can be define as children’s leisure activities. The widely available games may
be played on dedicated console systems, any computer and over the Internet,
handheld devices, and various technology toys. 
The term video game will be used to refer to electronically controlled
games played on any platform. 

Based on Funk et al, (2003), behavioral effects of
playing violent videogames, concerning the impact of exposure to violence on
children.  The children tends to act more
aggressive and love to show his strength towards the other friends.  Bullying is common in schools, with
Australian studies having found about 8% of boys and 4% of girls self-reporting
as repeatedly (on a weekly basis) bullying others, and about one in six
students reporting being bullied regularly. 
The proportion of students bullying others (and being bullied) occasionally
is considerably larger.  They are more
likely to consider bullying to be acceptable and normative behavior. Others, bullying
among peers might be influenced by, and even motivated by, social identity
concerns, such as a search for higher social status and, in turn, enhanced
self-esteem.

Based on Gaete et al (2017), bullying is defined as
a systematic aggressive behavior against a victim who cannot defend him or
herself.  Victims suffer isolation and
psychological maladjustment, while bullies have a high risk for conduct
problems and substance use disorders (kiva). Bullying, defined as repeated
aggressive or harmful actions directed at a less powerful peer, is highly
prevalent in schools worldwide.  In a
large study involving 40 countries, 10.7% of students reported bullying others
on a regular basis, 12.6 % said they were repeat bullied by their peers, and
3.6% reported being both perpetrators and victims of bullying. 

Given these high rates, as well as the evidence of
negative consequences associated with bullying (Beran, Hughes, & Lupart,
2008, Beran, Mishna, Hetherington, & Shaheen, 2011; Hawker & Boulton,
2000), it is important to study risk factors for bullying. Playing video games,
particularly those games involving violence, is a well-known correlate of
aggression (Anderson, 2010a, 2010b). Less is known, however, about video gaming
in relation to bullying.

Using a diary-keeping method to collect data on time
spent playing videogames among 10–14-year-olds, van Schie and Wiegman35 found a
negative relationship between times spent playing videogames and pro-social
behavior. Chambers and Ascione37 found that children donated much less money to
a charitable cause after playing a violent videogame.  Previous research also examined the impact of
exposure to videogame violence on children and adolescents’ social cognitive
abilities, with a focus on how playing violent videogames affects their ability
to relate to others.

The impact of bullying will spread faster as it go
through without any observation from teachers and parents.  Like other complex social situations,
children need to be provided with experiences that allow them to develop an
awareness, understanding and realization of potential responses to cope with
bullying.  FearNot! (Fun with Empathic
Agents to Reach Novel Outcomes in Teaching) is an experiential learning system
developed to engage children with developing strategies to cope with school
bullying. 

Based on Hall, Jones, Paiva and Aylett (2009) proved
that FearNot! Provides children with experiential learning that enables them to
experience a bullying situation in a secure and private manner.  In classroom evaluation has identified that
FearNot! Offers a useful intervention approach, with further studies focusing
on how to incorporate FearNot! Inco classroom-based social and emotional
learning.

Another method to prevent bully is KiVa Antibullying
Program, also known as Kiusaamista Vastaan “against bullying”. Garandeau, Lee
& Salmivalli, 2013 states that Kiva is a nationwide anti-bullying program
in Finland.  Develop in the year of 2006
by the Finnish Ministry of Education. 
After the large evaluation phase in 2007, the program are implemented
across the country in 2009.  In details,
Kiva antibullying program is based on the concept of the behavior of bystanders
including of reinforcing bullies, defending victimized peers, or remaining a
passive observer.  Those concept are
essential in the continuation or ending the bullying, and therefore another
huge efforts should focus on all students not only the offenders but also targets
of bullying (Garandeau, Lee & Salmivalli, 2013).

Research conducted by (Karna, Little, Poskiparta,
Kaljonen, et al., 2011) proved that KiVa program is effective in reducing
school bullying and victimization in Grades 4 – 6 (10 – 12 years).  Despite other evidence against school-based involvements,
the results suggest that well-conceived school-based programs able to reduce
victimization.  The research are
continued to investigate the KiVa antibullying program in two sample students,
Grades 1 – 3 (7 -9 years) and other group from Grades 7 – 9 (13 – 15
years).  Based on Karna, Little, Voeten
Alanen, Poskiparta et al (2013) stated that KiVa not only effective in reducing
bullying and victimization in Grades 4 – 6 but in Grades 1 – 3 as well.

Slee & Mohyla (2014) conducted a research
regarding on the computer-based social learning tool for assessing student
perceptions of bullying developed for an Australian intervention program called
the P.E.A.C.E. Packs.  In this situation
student rate their peer group behavior on a series of Likert scales, giving
open-ended responses, and watching film which they need to give commend
on.  The researcher found that P.E.A.C.E.
Packs, the computerized based systems are efficient in giving feedback
regarding on bullying cases in school.

 

2.3       Empathy

 

According to Ioannidou & Konstantikaki (2008), empathy
is not sympathy, but can be clearly known as understanding.  Literally, the root meaning of word empathy
is “feeling into” and empathy is one of the key element of Emotional
Intelligence that involves the relationship between self and others.  By having empathy, we as individuals able to
understand what others are experiencing if we were in their situation.  Empathy also encourage to increase the
prosocial (helping) behavior.  Else,
empathy can be expressed in the terms of enjoyment, sadness, excitement,
misery, pain and misperception.  In
health care institution empathy allows professionals to understand patients
feeling and situation then able to work together in the process of curing
patients (Le Compte A, 2000).  It can be
described as the ability to see the world through other’s eyes which encourage
in developing the ability to be in the situation of what someone else is
thinking and feeling.  It is an effort to
know each other, to live and feel the things in the same way.    

 

Based on the theory of Reuven Baron regarding on
emotional intelligence, it is totally different with IQ.  Emotional intelligence are related to the
ability to understand self and other, able to adapt with changes of the
situation and able to manage the feeling (Gottman, 2000).  Hence, it should be encourage at the early
age since children.  There is positive
correlation between emotional intelligence (empathy) and school performed based
on the research conducted by Mayer & Salovey (1990). Shows that empathy are
important for children development. 

 

Children and empathy are quite difficult to achieve
because children are self – centered and difficult to understand other’s
feeling.  However, empathy will greatly
happen when they keep interact with others Olinick
(1977).  If the children feels loves and
happy it can be shows in the way they treat their friends.  Hence, empathy among children can be develop
through playing (KidsMatter Early Childhood, 2004). 

 

In this developing technology, most of the children
are exposed to the digital game. 
According to Bachen, Hernandez-Ramos & Raphael (2012) proved that
through games or computer simulation children able to foster global empathy and
encourage the children in civic learning. 
Based on the research conducted, the children are allow to live the
lives of people in one countries.  They
are allows to make their own decision. 
Peng (2008) indicated that empathy contributes to sense of control over
game with the help of characters played. 
Shin (2017) proved that virtual reality by storytelling assist in
encouraging empathy.  The research
conducted allows the user to understand and feel a recreated scenario that
represent in a term of story.  The story
are then produced as computer graphic virtual environment that can be plays
through monitor.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

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