Law Exam EssayThe United Nations is defined as “an international organization formed in 1945 to increase political and economic cooperation among its member countries” (Investopedia, 2017). Though it seems to have kept relative peace for over 70 years it does face criticism from many due to its failure to intervene in major genocides including the Rwandan, Sierra Leone and the Cambodian Genocides. The UN is thought to be a bias institution that favours global superpowers and disregards the small, developing nations. However, it has improved the quality of life for many small nations through its peacekeeping and health care missions. This paper will discuss whether the United Nations is truly an effective institution, and will prove that the United Nations is generally ineffective in performing its overall duty to maintain international peace. After the First World War, there was an obvious need for an international institution to keep global peace. The League of Nations was formed as a result of the Paris Peace Conference and included 58 nations in its lifetime. It was dissolved on April 20, 1946 and it is said that it failed due to the disclusion of the United States of America and Germany and because it had no armed forces of its own. It was replaced by the United Nations after it failed to foresee or stop the Second World War. The United Nations is made up of 6 main organs. The General Assembly, which has 193 seats and includes a representative from each member country. The Security Council, which has 15 members, 5 permanent (UK, US, Russia, China and France) and 10 non-permanent members which are elected by the General Assembly for a 2 year term. The Economic and Social council, which has 54 member states elected by the general assembly every 3 years. The Trusteeship Council, which is no longer operating due to a successful action. The International Court of Justice, which is 15 judges on a 9 year term. Finally, the Secretariat which is the executive branch of the UN and includes the Secretary General of the United Nations, Antonio Guterres, who is also elected by the General Assembly. Though many ciritize the UN for not acting in certain conflicts it is inarguable that they have been successful throughout the last 70 years in their peacekeeping and global health efforts. They have successfully operated peacekeeping efforts in Namibia, Central America, and Iraq-Iran (Mathew John Ribeiro Norley, E-International Relations Students, 2017). The World Health Organization has also been successful in promoting health in developing countries and constantly sends troops into these areas for support. They played a big role on the eradication of smallpox as well as many other diseases that could have been detrimental to developing nations. The UN also takes pride in their peacekeeping efforts. Successful peacekeeping missions in the UN’s history include Namibia (1990) and El Salvador (1991-1995). Peacekeepers also strive to democratize the world in order to keep peace and emphasize the importance of human rights globally. It is an indisputable fact that without the UN the world would be far less developed and far less peaceful. On the contrary, many people argue that the United Nations structures are flawed in ways that prevent it from being full effective. An obvious example of this is the Security Councils permanent members having a veto, with which they can reject any action they wish to. This means that when the Security Council is asked to intervene in a conflict any of the five permanent members (the United States of America, Russia, China, France and the United Kingdom) can refuse and, even if the other 14 members vote to intervene, the UN will not be able to take action. This rule faces constant criticism because it takes away from the UN’s belief that all countries deserve peace. Also, the five permanent members of the Council are constant players in international conflicts. The veto power was used 193 times between 1945 and 1990. These vetoes have prohibited the UN from sending adequate aid to Suez (1956), Hungary (1956), Vietnam (1946-1975), and Iraq (2003) and resulted in million of unjust and unnecessary deaths. Another criticism the United Nations faces is their unwillingness to act in times of crisis. The UN does not want to make a decision they will end up regretting, so they are very careful with what conflicts they get involved with. Examples of this include the Rwandan Genocide (1994) and the Cambodian Genocide (1975-1979). In spite of the moderate success of the health and peacekeeping missions there is no argument that the United Nations generally ineffective to to their flawed tendency and bias systems and rules. The Western World has overlooked cruelty in other regions for far too long. Global superpowers who claim to believe in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights are only truly concerned when it benefits them. The bias of the United Nations towards wealthy countries, as well as their hesitation to act when human lives hang in the balance, need to be adjusted and improved before it can truly be an effective institution.