Kyle Besinal, Kelvin Chan, Ricardo Medenilla, Enzio Zuniga 12D 1/23/18Inquiries, Investigations and Immersions Ms. AlceGroup Introduction A central issue that has been going on for more than just decades now is climate change. But first, what is climate change? According to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), climate change is a change in the typical or average weather of a region or city. This could be a change in how much rain a place usually gets in a year, or a change in a place’s usual temperature for a month. People often confused climate with weather. NASA stated that weather is the short-term changes we see in temperature, clouds, precipitation, humidity, and wind in a region or city. This can change every day, and sometimes within the same day. Due to this, there is a growing interest in finding a way to counter climate change for everyone, especially for students, during regular days or during calamities like typhoons in the Philippines. One specific problem that is related to climate change is sudden rainfall. According to the Philippine, Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), rainfall is the most important climatic element in the Philippines. The average amount of rainfall each year in the Philippines ranges from 965 to 4,064 millimeters Clark (2011) reported that changes in rainfall and other forms of precipitation will be one of the most critical factors determining the overall impact of climate change. Despite rainfall being a lot more difficult to predict than temperature, scientists are positive about what the future will bring. Overall, sudden rainfall is something that should be issued as a serious matter because it greatly affects everyone, mostly the students since it can happen anytime, anywhere and could bring flash floods that could damage the entire community. A huge number of students are affected by the change in climate, with one of the primary victims being students and workers. This has been a problem ever since because not all students can afford paying for their transportation services. Since the Philippines is a country that has a tropical rainforest climate, meaning that the climate is very humid because of all the rainfall, it is more prone to sudden rainfall which could happen anytime and would have a sudden but heavy downpour on land. Calonzo (2009) described that the rainfall brought by tropical storm Ondoy to Metro Manila and nearby areas in a span of six hours on Saturday was the most in recorded history, surpassing the previous record for the metropolis in 1967. Nathaniel Cruz, weather services bureau head of the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration, told GMANews.TV that the total rainfall from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Saturday surpassed the highest 24-hour rainfall that the weather bureau recorded 42 years ago. This could be again a manifestation of climate change. Due to climate change, we should expect more extreme weather events like extreme rainfall, he said. According to The National Center for Safe Routes to School (2013), the number of people who walk to / and from school increased significantly between 2007 and 2012, from 12.4% to 15.7% in the morning; and from 15.8% 19.7% in the afternoon. Lake (2015) observed that a fair number of workers walk to get to work, which is right around four million people. Montenegro (2015) supports a study that was published in the journal Climatic Change. The study, made by Jascha Lehmann, Dim Coumou and Katja Frieler, has found that an increase in record-breaking rainfall levels after 1980 can be related to rising global temperatures. We show that over the last three decades the number of record-breaking events has significantly increased in the global mean, the study said. In the case for students, most public schools that are experiencing heavy rainfall would mean that they’d expect that the students wouldn’t come to class anymore due to flooded areas that affect their way going to school and vice versa, for the students who need to go home but can’t because they don’t have the transportation to do this. This is really a problem that needs attention and awareness because these are for the children and for the community.Having sudden rainfall is not directly linked to students, but due to this, students have a hard time on the way to school or back home because they would get caught by it. Walking and riding a bicycle being the only modes of transportation for students and workers, they are usually caught in some number of minutes of rain, and sometimes even rainstorms. One situation would be students who struggle to cross strong currents as floodwaters rise at a residential area in Las Piñas last 2013. Another similar situation that happened last August 20, 2013, wherein a passenger bus commutes along a flooded highway as heavy rains pummel Manila. Taylor (2013) observed that relentless monsoon rains and Tropical Storm Trami wreaked havoc in the Philippines, causing at least ten deaths and severely flooding wide swaths of the capital Manila. Flood-battered residents from coastal areas and mountainous regions appealed for help, after days of some of the Philippines’ heaviest rains on record. Basa (2014) described how the Philippine Stock Exchange (PSE) suspended trading over tropical storm Mario. Please be advised that there will be no trading at the Philippine Stock Exchange and no clearing and settlement at the Securities Clearing Corporation of the Philippines today, September 19, due to the suspension of clearing and settlement operations in the Philippine banking system, the PSE said in a statement. Knowing all these show the importance and the impact of sudden rainfall in the Philippines, but it also shows us that we could make an effort to at least counter them. In October of 2016, a news article reported that several accidents occurred in Pittsburgh during a Thursday morning commute due to the heavy rain. This shows that even though commuters are inside a vehicle, they can still be affected by rain and sometimes in worse ways than someone who is walking or riding a bike to get to their destination. Sudden rainfall has become an important aspect on attributing to climate change. It has also become a common problem but hasn’t been solved completely due to its lack of awareness that it’s a major problem. Students and workers who walk or ride bicycles to their destinations are not only at risk of a number of negative outcomes, they are also likely to be great affected by the weather such as rainstorms. According to climatemps.com, which is a website that tracks an area’s climate and temperature, Manila, Luzon is provided with an average of 2061 mm (81.1 inches) of rainfall per year. On average, there are 144 days per year, or 12 days per month, with more than 0.1 mm of rainfall. Data show that it rains pretty frequently in the Philippines, which adds more to the problem in which students and workers are at risk of being greatly affected by the rain while walking to their destination. Tarlach (2017) claimed that rain reigns over us: It’s the main way liquid water, necessary for all earthly life-forms, disperses across the planet. Dreher (2017) established that the shape and color of clouds can help you predict rain. Dreher (2017) also proposed that there’s a scientifically proven way to get less wet in the rain which is running. CoolKidFacts (2016) also reported that water stays in some places longer than others. A drop of water may spend over 3,000 years in the ocean before moving on to another part of the water cycle. On average a drop of water spends an average of 8 days in the atmosphere before falling back down to Earth. Lastly, the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration observed that the mean annual rainfall of the Philippines varies from 965 to 4,064 millimeters annually. Usually, students and workers who walk or ride bicycles make use of umbrellas, jackets, or raincoats when on the way to their destination while it is raining. However, using only these items don’t always cover all of their needs, especially when it is raining. The problem with using an umbrella is that there are times where the umbrella is not big enough to protect both you and your luggage from the weather. It’s either you are protected, your bag is protected, or only a part of you and your bag are protected. On the other hand, the problem with only using a jacket or a raincoat is that while you are almost fully protected from the weather, the items you carry are not, since a raincoat is only big enough to protect are single person. Sudden rainfall should be given more attention now that the people know the damages it could give to the entire community. There has been a lot of alternatives that has been invented/created in order to cope with rainfall. In a study by Contreras et.al (2013), they stated that in a tropical country such as the Philippines, abundant rainfall is considered a water resource for development and yet it is not fully used due to the seasonality of its occurrence. Rainwater harvesting through small water impounding projects (SWIPs) addresses the unbalanced rainfall distribution by collecting and storing direct rainfall and surface runoff for future use. The United Nations Development Programme also started the Project Climate Twin Phoenix, which aimed to assess the disaster vulnerabilities of the affected areas of Regions 10 and 11 in Mindanao, to geological, meteorological and meteorologically-induced hazards due to climate change. The results will provide the basis for priority mitigation actions like community- based and -managed early warning systems, and integrated contingency planning and mobilization. In the aftermath of Typhoon Bopha that hit the country in December 2012, the project extended its assistance to the affected provinces of Compostela Valley and Davao Oriental in Region 11, which was formalized in February 2013 through a Memorandum of Understanding. The project also conducted a Training of Trainers on the Basics of Climate and Disaster Risks, Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Management as well as a Training of Trainers on Geographic Information System for local partners. There is a need to investigate on how people can be more aware of the effects of sudden rainfall to the community and the environment, what could be a possible counter to it and how to prepare for it. Milman (2015) reported that Haiyan offered a case study on how climate change is a live issue for the Philippines. The IPCC predicts that climate change is likely to cause tropical cyclones to become more severe with greater wind speeds and more intense precipitation – a nightmarish scenario for a country already battered by around 20 typhoons a year. Aid agencies – Plan International, Save the Children, the Red Cross and others – gathered under the UN’s cluster system, which groups charities together to help in certain areas, such as shelter, health and education. (Milman, 2015). The World Health Organization (WHO) stated preparedness as key. WHO determined the typhoons’ immediate impact on the health sector to be low with 30 health facilities damaged but functioning, however, other sectors, especially livelihoods, are expected to have an important impact on the affected population’s vulnerability to health impacts. For example, extensive damages to crops at harvest time in regions already badly affected by the El Niño phenomenon are expected to increase food insecurity through March 2016. A considerable amount of literature has been published on the need to have raincoats attached to backpacks. Raincoats are jackets made of fabric that is specially treated to repel water (Advameg, 2017). O’Neil (2017) observed that raincoats and rain jackets are usually made from waterproof or water-resistant fabrics. In the same study of O’Neil (2017), he claimed that Vinyl and plastic are commonly used for the construction of children’s raincoats. Additionally, raincoats are made out of all types of fabric whether it’d be nylon, plastic, etc. An all-weather raincoat can be worn in any weather due to its removable lining. Fold ups can basically be folded and are usually made of vinyl. Trench coats are worn by both men and women, and are usually made of lightweight materials like cotton/polyester fabric (Advameg, 2017). Lastly, the fabric of many raincoats are made of a blend of two or more different materials like cotton, polyester, nylon, wool and/or rayon. A recent study that dwelled on the importance of raincoats is a study conducted by Ling (2015) wherein she reported that tens of millions of people in East Asia are in for a drenching. In such weather conditions, raincoats with reflective tape is very important to ensure our safety. Ling (2015) also stated that typhoon season makes it an ordeal for those people who still be asked to go to companies. People who need to ride bicycles or walk to work may worry about how to be rainproof and windproof in such a bad weather. Additionally, Bern & Murphy (2010) claimed that when they asked the students on their beliefs regarding if there were any main effects of the whole raincoat programme, the main response of the schools was that their students likely had an increased attendance report and were dry when there was rainfall. Although one focus group believed that the raincoats contributed to removing some stress from parents, the researches continued to see the effects of raincoats by interviewing children. One child believed things were ‘actually quite better’, but did not elaborate since receiving a raincoat. But, there was one unexpected effect that did emerge in the parents’ responses: a minority suggested that because their children liked the raincoats, they were more responsible and used them more: makes them responsible for their gear, to look after it, put it in the bags when not using or wearing it.In a study by Rowen & Gagliardi (2010), the researchers observed the properties of water-repellent fabrics. The study was made of the water-repellent properties of 11 commercial raincoat and 4 military fabrics. Before starting anything, Rowen & Gagliardi mentioned that we must, at the very beginning, distinguish the difference between “waterproof” and “water-repellant” textile surfaces. According to the researchers, a waterproof fabric is one in which the pores, the open spaces between the warp and filling yarns and between the fibers, are filled with appropriate substances, resulting in a fabric having a continuous surface and a very low air permeability while a water-repellent fabric is one in which the fibers are usually coated with a hydrophobic type of compound, and the pores are not filled in the course of the treatment. The results of the experimentation lead to the following conclusions regarding the status of water repellency. There is sufficient evidence to prove that raincoats can really keep you dry from sudden rainfall due to all the materials that are available to be used and certain fabrics that can be waterproof and/or water-repellent. Broudy (2015) asserted that there is a raincoat that can keep you really dry, and that is the Columbia OutDry EX Diamond Shell. The raincoat puts its waterproof breathable membrane on the outside. Because the membrane is heat-fused with the polymer and the inner fabric layer, it does go away with sweat-trapping glue.Despite several studies claiming that raincoats coated in or made of vinyl are usually the best in terms of quality, other studies have shown that vinyl has a number of harmful effects. According to Vancouver (1992), vinyl garments are notoriously feeble, which makes them prone to creasing. They usually rip easily and deteriorate when dry-cleaned. Escandon (2013) emphasized that vinyl is uniquely toxic due to the highly toxic ingredients in it which affects the environment during its production, use, and disposal. She also stated that vinyl is 57% chlorine, which is a toxic substance that generates a huge amount of pollution.Raincoats, since the day it was invented, have been extensively studied mainly to repel water during rainfall caused by the clouds, typhoons, etc. However, less attention has been paid to inventing and creating a raincoat that can be easily attached to any bag and could be used instantly when there’s a sudden rainfall that is why this specific prototype will be able to help a lot of people, mostly the students.In spite of these early observations, the question remains. Will this raincoat be able to deliver the functions that it’s supposed to give due to the lack of resources, at the moment? Will it be able to repel water from entering the user’s body and also the backpack fully like nothing happened? Hence, additional studies on the specific material / fabric is needed in order to fully fulfil the functions of this specific raincoat.The very purpose of this paper is to be able to help those students who don’t have private transportation services like having their own cars and just commuting going to school from home and vice versa. It is also for those students who are living in places that are always affected by typhoons, flash floods, and sudden rainfall. This research also presents data on those students who go home with and without bags so that the researchers would be able to know if the student would be able to use the raincoat attached to the bag.