Know-Nothing Party- The Know-Nothing Party evolved from the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner and was a major political force in the 1850s. The party’s goals were to limit immigrant voting strengths, extend the period of naturalization, and keep power out of immigrants and Roman Catholics. It was also known as the American party.Stephen F. Austin and American empresarios in Texas- Empresarios were land grants in 1824 to recruit peaceful American settlers for Texas, given by the Mexican government. Americans, such as Stephen F. Austin were content at first, until Mexico closed Texas to further American immigration in 1830 and forbade the incoming of more slaves. When the Americans kept coming, Austin repealed the 1830 prohibition on immigration. He began a steady migration of American settlers into the territory. Texas contained about thirty thousand white Americans, five thousand black slaves, and four thousand Mexicans by 1836.Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna- Antonio Lopez was the dictator of Mexico in 1834. He abolished the federal system of government and wanted to enforce Mexican laws in Texas. He tightened his hold on Texas, but the Americans rebelled. Santa Anna then led an army into Texas to lead an uprising and defeated the Americans in the Alamo and at Goliad. He was taken as prisoner and forced to sign a treaty allowing the independence of Texas.The Alamo- Santa Anna’s army of 4,000 men attacked San Antonio in late February, 1836. 200 Texan defenders retreated into an abandoned mission, called the Alamo. Many of these 200 defenders were killed and some surrendered. Texas delegates were meeting during this time and decided that Texas should be independent from Mexico. Santa Anna was forced to sign a treaty after being captured by Sam Houston and the rebels, which recognized the independence of Texas and granted the new republic all the territory north of the Rio Grande. “Remember the Alamo” became a battle cry in support of Texan independence.Sam Houston- Was United States politician and military leader who fought to make Texas a part of the United States (1793-1863) and have it secede or gain independence Mexico. He was elected by rebels to become the first president of the republic of Texas. He led reinforced rebel soldiers to launch a surprise attack on Santa Anna, capturing him and forcing him to sign a treaty recognizing Texan independence.John Tyler- Was Vice President and then became President when William Henry Harrison died (1790-1862). He was seen as disastrous from a Whig point of view. Tyler favored states’ rights and used his new power to destroy the Whig’s proposals like the new national bank, a modified banking bill, and some tariffs. He vetoed nearly all Whig proposals and successfully prevented the party from enacting their program, hurting their political power. John Tyler wanted to annex Texas, but wasn’t able to do it because he lost the 1844 election while running for a second term.John C. Calhoun- Calhoun was a southern political leader, the secretary of war, congressman, the seventh vice president (1825-32), the secretary of state of the United States, and a senator. He promoted states’ rights and slavery and the secessionists desire to secede from the Union; he was a symbol of the Old South. His theories on abolition helped contribute to the secessionist beliefs on slavery.Henry Clay- Known as “The Great Compromiser,” within the Whig party. While he was a senator, he pushed for a compromise between the North and South by proposing the omnibus bill (later turned into the Compromise of 1850), and worked with Stephen Douglas. He ran for president in 1844 for the Whig party against James Polk and lost.James K. Polk- He made his debut by breaking the deadlock between Van Buren and Cass and winning the 1844 presidential election as a “dark-horse” nominee (came out of nowhere). During his presidency, Polk received co-occupation of oregon with a division at the 49th parallel instead of the desired “54º40 or flight”, led the people in the victory of the Mexican-American War and acquired California, New Mexico, and Texas, and lowered tariffs.John L. O’Sullivan and Manifest Destiny- The election of 1844 showed that the American people wanted to pursue their destiny of expanding to the Pacific Ocean (Manifest Destiny). Manifest Destiny advocates were typically Democrats supporting annexation of Texas and they used noble, haughty language, invoked God and Nature to encourage expansion, and wanted to preserve the agricultural and democratic country. Opponents of expansion, typically northern Whigs, saw it as an excuse to expand slavery. John L. O’Sullivan, a New York Democratic journalist and expansionist, wrote about how it is the American destiny to expand all the way to the Pacific Ocean and possess all the land granted to them by Providence (God or nature) to continue the experiment of liberty and self-government. Acquiring Oregon and California soon came to the interest Democratic expansionists. John C. Fremont and the Bear Flag Republic- Fremont was a southern adventurer-turned-military-officer dispatched in California to “watch over the interests of the U.S.”. In June 1846, Fremont and a small troop of American settlers revolted in Sonoma, seizing it and calling it the “Bear Flag Republic”. This quickly led to the establishment of American control in California with stationed U.S. military troops.Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo- When Mexico City was conquered by Americans in 1847, Mexico surrendered. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war under the terms that Mexico would acknowledge and follow the Rio Grande boundary and cede much of the present-day U.S. Southwest to the U.S, which most importantly included Texas, California, and New Mexico. In return the U.S. would pay $15 million and the government would promise to pay claims of U.S. citizens against Mexico.Wilmot Proviso- Proposed an American law to ban slavery in territory acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War. The conflict over the Wilmot proviso was one of the major events leading to the American Civil War. Congressman David Wilmot first introduced the proviso in the United States House of Representatives on August 8, 1846, It passed the House but failed in the Senate, where the South had greater representation. It was reintroduced in February 1847 and again passed the House and failed in the Senate. In 1848, an attempt to make it part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo also failed. Sectional political disputes over slavery in the Southwest continued until the Compromise of 1850.Squatter or popular sovereignty- Squatter, or popular, sovereignty was an idea hatched by Michigan senator Lewis Cass in 1848. He urged it as a solution to the question of slavery in the territories. It called for organizing territories without mention of slavery, thus leaving it to local settlers to determine the status of slavery among them.Martin Van Buren and the Free Soil Party- The Free-Soil Party was organized by anti-slavery men in the north, democrats who were resentful at Polk’s actions, and some conscience Whigs. The Free-Soil Party was against slavery in the new territories. They also advocated federal aid for internal improvements and urged free government homesteads for settlers. This Free-Soil Party foreshadowed the emergence of the Republican party.Chapter 14:John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry- John Brown was a relatively threatening abolitionist who was wanted for the massacre of white southerners in Kansas (1856). He disguised himself as “Isaac Smith” while going undercover as a cattle dealer on the outskirts of Harpers Ferry, Virginia and living with his partners and their wives. In reality they were collecting armory for a planned raid on Harpers Ferry, the location of a federal arsenal and armory. Their goal was to incite a slave rebellion in the South by arming blacks. In October of 1859, he and 18 other recruits seized the arsenal and armory but tense whites, fearing a slave rebellion, quickly squashed the capture, killing 10 and capturing the others, including Brown, for later execution. The event further deepened the divide between pro- and anti-slavery sides and people became increasingly passionate about the matter.William H. Seward and irrepressible conflict- He was an antislavery, Whig, New York senator who argued that God’s moral law was higher than the Constitution and the will of God was against the expansion of slavery. The irrepressible conflict he spoke of was between the North and South and their differing socioeconomic situations with free labor and slave labor. The conflict he said would determine the fate of the nation. He was appointed by Abraham Lincoln, who had similar views on the unavoidable conflict.Henry Clay’s omnibus bill and the Compromise of 1850- Henry Clay, a leading Whig, proposed what became known as the omnibus bill in an effort to resolve a range of issues. The bill consisted of six parts: (1) California admitted as a free state, (2) Mexican cession divided into two territories, New Mexico and Utah, and wouldn’t have government control over slavery, (3) Texas-New Mexico boundary dispute would favor New Mexico, (4) federal government would pay Texas’s public debt, (5) D.C. would continue slavery but abolish the slave trade, and (6) more effective fugitive slave law. All components were passed in the Compromise of 1850, but they were all passed individually, as it was divided in order to pass through Congress more easily. Both sides won and lost something, so the Compromise of 1850 didn’t solve any differences between the two opposing sides.Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, Anthony Burns, and personal-liberty laws- The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 allowed southern slaveholders to pursue fugitive slaves on northern soil for capture, and they didn’t even have to be recent runaways. They could’ve escaped 15 years prior and now be subject to recapture. The act also didn’t allow accused fugitives to testify on their own behalf or have the right of trial by jury. The recapture was based on the accusation of the slaveholder, and the appointed commissioner was paid more if they sided with the slaveholder as opposed to the fugitive. Northerners saw that slavery showed no signs of stopping and affected them too. Anthony Burns was a fugitive slave that was being recaptured in Boston in 1854. His escort onto a ship to take him back south caused a very dramatic scene and turned conservatives into mad abolitionists. “Personal-liberty laws” were passed by 9 northern states in the 1850s forbidding state jails to hold fugitives, making it much harder for officials to enforce the law.Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin- Harriet Beecher Stowe was outraged by the Fugitive Slave Act. He published the novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin in 1852, which created a large amount of northern sympathy for fugitive slaves. Instead of targeting the slave catchers, the novel targeted more of slavery itself. Three hundred thousand copies of the novel were sold by 1852 and 1.2 million copies were sold by the summer of 1853.Stephen A. Douglas and the Kansas-Nebraska Act- Stephen A. Douglas liked the ideas of a Pacific railroad and the organization of Nebraska as a way to encourage people to settle between the Midwest and the Pacific. He proposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, which made Kansas and Nebraska states and got rid of the Missouri Compromise. Each state would decide what they wanted to do about slavery. This act weakened the second party system even more.Gadsden Purchase- James Gadsden purchased a strip of land south of the Gila River from Mexico in 1853. This was a decision that was favored by advocates of a southern railroad route to the Pacific. Free-soilers’ suspicion of expansion was revealed by opposition to the Gadsden Purchase, so the Senate approved the treaty only after removing nine thousand square miles from the parcel.Ostend Manifesto- Was also known as the Ostend “Bleeding Kansas”- Was a series of violent political confrontations to decide whether or not Kansas was to become a slave state. It was a major conflict between abolitionists and pro-slavery forces. The term was coined by a republic Horace Greerly.Lecompton vs. Topeka legislature and the Lecompton constitution- The second of four proposed constitutions for Kansas, it was to try to make Kansas a free state, although the new constitution enshrined slavery in the proposed state.Dred Scott v. Stanford- Was a very important decision in the United States Supreme Court, it has essentially said that a negro who had slave ancestors could not be an American citizen and therefore had no ability to sue in federal court.Lincoln-Douglas Debates and Douglas’s Freeport Doctrine- Lincoln was campaigning to replace Douglas in his US Senate seat by strongly opposing all proposals to expand the practice of slavery within the United States. Lincoln tried to force Douglas to choose between the principle of popular jurisdication proposed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act (which rested the fate of slavery in the US territories to its inhabitants) and the majority decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in the case of Dred Scott v. Sandford (said that slavery could not legally be excluded from US territories). Instead choosing directly, Douglas’ stated that despite the court’s decision, slavery could be prevented by the people living in the territory to enforce laws in favor of slavery.Jefferson Davis and the Confederate States of America- Was the President of the Confederate States from 1861 to 1865. Historians accredit the Confederacy’s weaknesses to Davis’ poor leadership. His self-absorption with detail, lack of popular appeal, disinclination to delegate responsibility, favoritism toward old friends, fights with powerful state governors and generals, inability to get along with people who disagreed with him, neglecting civil matters but favoring military matters, and opposition to public opinions. He began to pledge his allegiance and advised that the Confederate States declare allegiance to the Union in the late 1880’s.Fort Sumter- One of the many special forts organized after the War of 1812. The First Battle of Fort Sumter (1861) was caused because the Confederate ordnance fired on the Union Garrison. In The Second Battle (1863) the Union failed to retake Fort Sumter and were pursued by the rivalry between the navy and army commanders. The Fort remained in the Confederate control until they evacuated it in 1865.