OF INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECNOLOGY
OF COMPUTING SCIENCE
PROGRAMME: SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
UNIT: SPECIAL TOPIC IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
CODE: SOEN 414
THIS TERM PAPER IS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF
THE AWARD OF BACHELORS OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN KISII
< --Table of content -->
Table of abbreviations
Digital Programme Learning
I do hereby declare that this Term
Paper is original and has not been published or submitted for any other degree
award to any other University before.
SIGN: …………………… DATE: ………………………
Student: Albert Ochieng Okwangala
is clear that technology is becoming an integral part of our everyday activity
and that’s why you find it integrated in all aspects of our lives. From the
health sector, economic sector, social sector, education sector etc. but does
this technology impact as positively. Back then in memorial students used to
learn using paper and pencil while interacting with other students and
teaches/lectures. This method of learning has seen my people becoming great
employees in their line of profession and reaching greater heights in terms of
their education levels. However, with the evolving technology in the education
sector new ways of learning have been introduced. A good example is Digital
learning which I will be exploiting to analyze its advantages and disadvantages.
and for most we need to understand the definition of digital learning as it is
sometimes confused by e-learning. As per the Wikipedia, Digital learning is any
type of learning that is facilitated by technology or by institutional
practices that makes effective use of technology. It encompasses the
application of a wide spectrum of practices including: blending and virtual
learning, adaptive learning, badging and gamification, blended learning,
classroom technologies, e-textbooks, learning analytics, learning objects,
personalized learning, online learning (or e-learning), open educational
resources(OERs), technology-enhanced teaching and learning, virtual reality etc.
the mid-1990s, many education policy makers have promoted widespread access to
the Internet in schools. Over
the same period, access to the Internet has been expanding in locations outside
of school. One of the most common activities that youth perform online is
schoolwork. According to a September 2001 study by
the Pew Internet & American Life Project:
every online teen (94% of 12 to 17 year olds who report using the Internet) has
used the Internet for school research;
used the Internet as the major source for their most recent school project;
have used a Web site set up by school or a class;
have downloaded a study aid; and
have created a Web page for a school project.
learning is meant to enhance the learning experience rather than replace
traditional methods all together but are the digital tools used in e-learning
making us more or less productive at school and work? This will be one of my
research point apart from also exploring how digital learning has or is going
to change schools and the education sector.
order to get a quantitative and a qualitative research I have used journal and
online materials as a meanings of carrying out my research in an attempt of
getting a comprehensive statistics on how digital learning is impacting our way
of studies as well as the education sector.
time ago; like 15years or so, smart phones were beginning to coverage, doing
away with the need of paper addresses and enabling new connectivity. Digital learning today is where
smartphones were a decade ago but it’s taking hold; at least that is
what it looks like in most third world countries as compared to most first
world countries. As a study case I will be evaluating the impacts of digital learning
in United States as well as in Kenya.
In the United States statics show that thirty states offer fully online
schools that grant degrees. There are approximately 315,000 students enrolled
in this type of digital school. This represents about half of one percent of
the overall primary and secondary school population. But, the number of
students enrolled in online schools is growing rapidly. This past school year
enrollment increased by 6.2 percent. In addition, virtual schools, which
provide supplementary course offerings, have about 740,000 course enrollments
in the 2015-2016 school year. Even though digital schools have many enrollment
in the state, some states have put in polies to help the growth of digital
learning, for example North Carolina created the position of “chief academic
and digital learning officer” to administer the state’s online learning
programs. However, some other states that have inhibit the growth of digital
learning. For example, currently, twenty states have laws banning the
enrollment of students in digital schools. Concentrating on the states that
offer and support digital learning, a report done by Gerard L. Danford shows
that The U.S. is the
undisputed leader in digital (online and distance) higher education. 5.8
million Students are taking at least one digital course, and some 2.7 million
higher education students are studying exclusively via digital. Furthermore,
growth in digital learning continues, even as higher education enrollments
overall are declining 1, 2, 3. What can European higher education
institutions learn from this U.S. experience? In this research the author
focuses on; the drivers of growth in digital learning, impact on learning
outcomes, and institutional costs.
Kenya the case is different as that of the United States. A program known as the Digital Learning
programme (DLP) was initiated by the Government of Kenya in 2013. The programme
was put in place to integrate the use of technologies in learning. This
programme was put in place to deliver 1.2 million devices between 2013 and 2016
but up to date only 11500 devices have been delivered in lower primary schools
but the government is working towards expanding the DLP to cover up to the
secondary stage of its education sector. However, apart from the DPL making an
effort to introduce and implement the digital learning, other organizations and
institutions are on the verge of fully adopting digital learning practices. A
good example is The Kenyatta University School of Virtual and Open Learning that
seeks to provide learning opportunities to students who are unable to take up
full-time on-campus programmes.
2.2 Case Study
is a clear distinction on the comparison between the two countries above as
digital learning has already been implemented In the United states but in Kenya
it is facings its genesis. For this reason I will be evaluating the United
State digital learning evolution to get a clear outcome on whether the digital
learning experience has made more or less productivity at school and work and
its impact to the education sector.
research done in USA shows that the impact made in the education sector can
only be measured using the following variable which include:
ü Availability of ICT
ü Usage of ICT
ü Knowledge of ICT
ü Effectiveness of ICT
variable was researched upon by asking different universities in different
states on the following questions as per the variable:
Availability of ICT
there any available IT equipment’s in the university?
internet connectivity available any time you are in the computer laboratory?
there any available multimedia device when you are in the lecture rooms?
many digital libraries are there in that state?
Usability of ICT
variable exploits and tries to find out how the students can use newly set
technologies in studying. The following questions were used to evaluate this
there any usage of latest technology in the university?
frequent do students use multimedia devices in lecture rather than black/white
frequently do students use the internet in researching about their assignments
and school projects rather than books in the library?
Knowledge of ICT
variable help us understand how knowledgeable are students regarding the use of
ICT and how has it been beneficial to them.
does ICT functions provide information to operate different multimedia devices?
ü How is
the ICT knowledge helpful at a professional level?
Effectiveness of ICT
To evaluate how
the effectiveness of ICT has impacted the education sector. The following
questions were asked.
the ICT knowledge improve the learning skills of students?
has the intent enhanced your way of learning and researching?
has ICT enhanced education planning?
major finding of this research establish that availability and usage of ICT is
very crucial to enhance the educational sector and efficiency of students. This
shows that the availability of ICT is beneficial to the students as it enhances
their learning experience and helps them prepare a complete and comprehensive
report in their assignments and projects. This findings imply that the more the
usage and availability of ICT in a university, the more efficient student will
be in terms of their profession. All the heads of universities were in
agreement that vast knowledge provided by ICT is helpful in enhancing the
efficiency level in the education sector.
CHAPTER 3: LITRATURE REVIEW
is the era of technology, hence, it is being used in every sector of our lives
and Educations is no exception. Digital learning is not exactly a new concept,
but is also neither a very old one. It is basically any type of learning that
is facilitated by technology or by institutional practices that makes effective
use of technology. It is a deeper learning experience as the student makes the
effort of understanding the concepts himself.
a particular private school in Saudi Arabia, “an eight-year-old girl calculates
multiplication tables using an interactive program that feeds her increasingly
difficult questions as she demonstrates higher levels of achievement. Across
the hall, a ten-year-old boy prepares a short video explaining how automobile
air bags work.” With such a rich environment of technological devices such
as laptops and tablets, it’s hard to believe that just one year earlier these
students relied solely on pencils, textbooks, and teacher lectures.
shocking research done by world economic forum shows that 65% of the children
entering primary schools will find themselves in occupation that today don’t
exist. It also shows that by 2020 and estimation of about 1.5 million digitized
job across the globe. This means that truly technology is playing in every
aspect of our lives and it is here to stay. However, as beneficial as it is, it
also comes with some cons. A number of things makes its implementation really
hard such as its expensiveness, but apart from that social media applications
have really caused a major distraction to our young associates. Social media is
mostly used as a tool to size up one’s own accomplishments against others which
tends to have a lot of negative impacts to the young boys and girls. This
should not be the case, social media is an advantageous platform where one can
learn and share educational content apart from extending your social status.
These Social and recreational media should mostly be used as a site of learning.
Apart from that it has also led to the Lack of face-to-face interactions with
the teachers and classmates, of which in my opinion is not a healthy move.
CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND OBSERVATIONS
4.1 Digital learning
impacts on the student.
following are some of the positive impacts on the student I have compiled from different online materials:
ü Informal patterns of learning: Digital
learning helps a student to learn in a style that best suits him. For example,
if he is unable to understand through theory, he can use interactive programs
to get a better understanding of the concept.
ü Learning anytime and anyplace: Thanks
to the internet and the modern technology, students can now access study
material on their laptops at any time and from anywhere. As a result, the
students are not restricted to learning only during the school hours.
ü Performance Improvements: Research
has shown that students who have access to digital learning and who make good
use of it, tend to perform well in their papers.
ü Improving concepts: Blended
learning tools are very helpful in making the concept understandable. Students
are better able to comprehend problems.
ü Improves creativity: Not
all students are able to perform well by solely relying on course books. For
them, it is important to utilize their creative side. For this matter, digital
learning is the best option.
ü Increased Interactivity: It
is true that interactive programs and strategies are engaging for students.
They are able to develop an interest in them, helping them to learn voluntarily
and more effectively.
to Jim Shelton, deputy secretary at
the US Department of Education, the benefits of adding digital educational
tools to curriculum extend far beyond the classroom. In an interview done
by The Aspen Institute Jim Shelton offered a deeper dive into the advantages of
introducing digital learning. He said that “When students have access to
powerful mobile devices and digital resources that are continually updated,
they realize that learning doesn’t stop with the last bell of the school day.
They become accustomed to learning being an integral part of all aspects of
their lives, which establishes ongoing learning habits lasting long after
graduation. In addition, technology empowers students to take control of
their own learning. By providing students with tools to engage and create, as
well as monitor their own progress, students are put in the driver’s seat and
become owners of the learning process.”
Other than having a wide load of
benefits the digital learning platform contains some negative impacts on the student as well.
ü It has many Distractions? Digital
Learning tools can sometime be distraction to students. Many students end up
spending a lot of time in these tools and forget about their lecture books and
classwork’s hence the end up wasting a lot of their time. Some of these tools
are laptops connected to internet which becomes a problem to students that are
easy distracted by the social media.
ü It’s expensive to implement digital
learning: Buying digital learning tools e.g. Laptops, smart
phones, etc. are quite expensive and therefore cannot be afforded by everyone.
More so by students leaving in third world countries.
ü Missing out on the social aspect of
learning: Lack of face-to-face interactions with the teachers
and classmates is not a healthy move. It is important to remember that not all
education can be received through digital learning. Class lectures and
discussions are important learning processes. The bond of a teacher and pupil
is very important for a positive learning experience.
4.2 Digital learning impacts on the Education sector
use of information and communication technologies in the education sector plays
an important role in providing innovation to the whole learning process in the
potential of ICT impact in education is clear but only when implemented
correctly, laptops and computers for example, can allow students to learn at
their own speed and help children develop important digital skills and computer
know-how. But some huge challenges, such as high costs of these devices,
increased burdens on parents and teachers. However, many higher education
institution have taken up the challenge and are putting in their best in
implement digital learning because of the following reasons:
many more new students expected to enroll in universities in the near future, digitization
allows higher education to be more scalable and more affordable.
Universities and colleges are not only used by students who have graduated from
secondary education but also by full-time
workers, single parents, and career changers—convenient access to higher
education at various stages of their lives hence bring into account the
functionality of flexibility.
education is being enhanced by new features in mobile devices, cloud delivery
systems, video streaming and other broadband-intensive applications, and
learning management systems.
students are digital natives who are used to getting want they want at the time
and location they want to get it.
distraction just another meaningless message to keep you from paying attention
to the issues that are important?” One
of the observations I’ve made in this research is that the only tool that makes
many students and even employees in many organizations to be lazy and lack
innovation in whatever they are doing is social media. Below I have outlined
the negative impacts of social media.
4.3 I Negative Impacts of social media to students
Many students depend solely on the accessibility of information on social media
specifically and different websites in general to provide solutions for
whichever situations they may be facing, may it be assignments, projects, life
hacks etc. This means that their focus in learning and retaining information is
Many students and employees tend to attempt to multi-task, visiting social
media sites while studying or working, their ability to concentrate on the task
at hand is significantly reduced by the distractions that are brought about by
YouTube, Facebook or Twitter. At the end this reduces their performance in
school and work.
The more time students and employees spend on social sites, the more they
became antisocial in terms of interacting with other people physically.
Students who spend a great deal of time on social networking are less able to
effectively communicate in person.
The fast growth of social media, and the pace at which information is
published, has created a relaxing attitude towards proper spelling and proper
construction of sentences. This has significantly made many students lazy in
writing, as they depend so much on computer with spell checking features.
The anonymity brought by the internet has made many student careless in
publishing comments or status on these social network sites which brings
negative consequences. For example some of the employers tend to research about
a particular interviewee through his social media accounts before giving them a
CHAPTER 5: RECOMMENDATIONS
is with no doubt that technology is having a massive impact in the education
sector and has become an essential and effective tool for the success of many
students. But this is only possible when implemented correctly. One of the most
effective way of implementing digital learning is by the use of a concept known
as blended learning introduce by education Technology Company. Blended learning
is the use of technology to combine in-class and out-class learning by infusing
tradition learning with technology. Blended learning has redefined the role of
teaches and lecture by offering them a more flexible option depending on the
capabilities of the student. This intern enables teaches to focus on making
students understand a particular concept rather than worring with mode of delivering
the concept itself.
blended method learning enables college staff with the ability to be able to come
up with flipped activities which learners can complete pre- and post-lesson to
gain understanding of topics. These is very advantageous as it allows the time
in traditional classrooms to focus on extending the students’ knowledge and to enable
them in reaching the advanced levels of learning such as analyzing and
the access of social media sites in multimedia devices such as computers and
laptops in offices and schools is an effective way of ensuring that employees
and students are not distracted. Hence, their concentration is fully in what
they are doing.
and companies from private sectors from different countries should try as much
as possible to fund and put in place polies that enable and help in the
implementation of digital learning in schools so as to improve the education
sector. The government should put in place measure to ensure the availability
and usability of ICT infrastructures is accessible to students so as to
facilitate digital learning.
LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION ‘Lessons From America’ Gerard L. Danford, Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences,
Usage and Impact of ICT in
Education Sector. A Study of Pakistan by M. Wasif Nisar, Ehsan Ullah Munir and
Shafqat Ali shad