IntroductionHook: The airplane is one of the most technological advantages in the world today, and it all started with these two brothers. Background: The Wright brothers worked hard together to make many airplanes, gliders, and even engines.Thesis: Wilbur and Orville Wright were the first people to fly a successful airplane by working together and going through trial and error.Topic #1: Background about Orville and WilburTopic Sentence: Orville and Wilbur were brothers who created the Wright Company.OrvilleBorn in Dayton, Ohio on Aug. 19, 1871Had an interest in science and technologyFit the stereotype of flyingWilburBorn in Millville, Indiana on Apr. 16, 1867Father’s favorite childQuiet, intelligent, great memoryTopic #2: FamilyTopic Sentence: Wilbur and Orville also had some amazing family, like their sister (Katherine), father (Milton), and mother (Susan).Susan (Mother)Died in the summer of 1889 from tuberculosisMilton (Father)A bishop in a church called the United Brethren ChurchWasn’t home a lotSent many lettersKatherine (Sister)Topic #3: EducationTopic Sentence: Surprisingly, the Wright brothers education left much to be desired.MiltonWent to a small college in IndianaStudied hardWilbur and OrvilleBoth didn’t attend their high school ceremony and collegeKatherineWent to collegeTopic #4: Airplanes & Wind TunnelsTopic Sentence: The Wright brothers used airplanes and wind tunnels to help them fly.AirplanesAircrafts that flyThere are two types: lighter-than-aircrafts or heavier-than-aircraftsWind TunnelsLarge tubes with air moving inside them to copy the actions of an object in flightCreated in 1871 by Francis Herbert WenhamTopic #5: 1899-Breakthrough concept (Wing-Warping)Topic Sentence: Wing-warping was a new design that the Wright brothers had discovered.They realized that when an approaching rush of air hit one side of the aircraft at a greater angle than the other then it would make it rise then bank, because it would create a larger lift on that same side. If the pilot was skilled enough, he could keep balance and turn well if he moved the wings in a certain way.Topic #6: 1899-Letter to the Smithsonian & Wright KiteTopic Sentence: Wilbur wrote a letter to the Smithsonian Institution on May 30, 1899.Letter to the SmithsonianHe said that he and his brother believed that human flight was achievable and stated that they wanted to pursue testing in that field.Wight KiteCreated in July and tested by WilburA biplane with a 5-foot wingspanHad wing-warping control and had the design of the Chanute-Herring gliderTopic #7: 1900-Wright Glider & 1901-Wright Glider #2Topic Sentence: The next Wright brothers aircraft was called the Wright Glider, and after that was the Wright Glider number 2.Wright GliderCreated in 1900Wingspan: 17 ft (5.2 m)Weight: 52 lb (24 kg)Wright Glider #2Was the most disappointing and problematic aircraftElevator control was over sensitive and inconsistent Wingspan: 22 ftWeight: 98 poundsTopic #8: 1902 GliderTopic Sentence: After the unsatisfactory performance from the Wright Glider number 2, they attempted at another one that was much better.1902 GliderThinner airfoilLonger and narrower wingsFully controllableWingspan: 32 ftWeight: 117 lbTopic #9: Flyer 1 (aka the Kitty Hawk) & 1903 EngineTopic Sentence: The Kitty Hawk was the Wright brothers and the world’s first airplane that was powered with the 1903 Engine.Kitty HawkThe first airplane and powered aircraftThe first sustained and controlled fight with an airplaneThe first flight was Dec. 17, 19031903 EngineUsed for the Kitty Hawk12 hp (horsepower)Had the standard (at the time) 4-4-4 design with four cylinders that were four inches eachTopic #10: 1904 Flyer 2 & 104-1905 EnginesTopic Sentence: The Flyer number two was practically like the Kitty Hawk, except that it was powered with the 1904-1905 engines and a few other changes.Flyer 2Flatter camberStronger skidsTheir first airplane to fly in a complete circleFlew over the Huffman Prairie on Nov. 16, 19041904-1905 EnginesBuilt 2 horizontal engines, one went on the 1904-1905 engines while the other one was used to test and experiment withEventually had an production of 25 hpTopic #11: 1905 Flyer 3 & 1905-1915 Bent-End PropellersTopic Sentence: Next up, was the Flyer number three, and the bent-end propellers that were used until 1915.Flyer 3The world’s first practical airplaneCanard and rudder were lengthened out for easier controlKept flying until their fuel ran outFlew during a public flight on Oct. 4, 1905Bent-end PropellersNoticed the propeller blades flexed at flying speeds which altered the angle where it hit the airAdded triangle additions to the trailing end of the bladesEnlarged the diameter of the bladesTopic #12: 1906-1912 Vertical 4-Cylinder EngineTopic Sentence: The next engine that they made was the 1906 vertical 4-cylinder engine which was used up to 1912.1906 vertical 4-cylinder engineUsed for commercial flights40 hpCould be dismantled one part at a time, which made maintenance easier Simple ignition systemTopic #13: 1907-1909 Wright Model A & 1909-1910 Wright “Transitional” Model A (aka Model A-B)Topic Sentence: In 1907, the Wright brothers made Model A which was used until 1909, and after that, went on the make Model A-B which was used up to 1910. One year later, they made the Model B, too.Model AFirst two seater aircraftFirst Wright aircraft where the passenger sat uprightDemonstrated by Wilbur in front of millions of people in New YorkModel A-BFirst airplane with an elevator in the backOnly aircraft where the brothers flew togetherUsed to train civilian pilotsModel BFirst mass-produced airplaneFirst Wright plane without canardRested on wheels Topic #14: 1909 Military FlyerTopic Sentence: The Military Flyer was made in 1909 and was for the United States Army Signal Corp.Military FlyerFirst military aircraftDesigned for speedThe US Dep. of War paid them an extra $2,500 over the 40 mph limit42 mphTopic #15: 1912-1913 Model C & Model DTopic Sentence: Soon, the Wright brothers made a Model C that was invented in 1912, along with the Model D.Model CFlater wings and taller rudderFirst aircraft to have the Wright 6-cylinder motorModel DLight and fast66 mphTopic #16: The Later YearsTopic Sentence: As their lives closed to an end, both brothers had accomplished so much.OrvilleDied Jan. 30, 1948 at the age of 41 in Dayton, OhioWilburDied May 30, 1912 at the age of 45 in Dayton, OhioConclusionThesis: The Wright brother were two amazing people who are pioneers in aviation because they worked together and went through trial and error.Information: Orville and Wilbur Wright went through experimentation many times when they were making the different types of aircrafts. For example, they had a discouraging time with Wright Glider #2, but kept on going. And throughout most of it, they still did it together.Ending: The Wright brothers have set the path for others who want to pursue a career in flying.