Introduction The method of doubt by Descartes requires people to doubt everything they believe. Descartes provide his own reasons for doubting. He does that by facing the critical motive for questioning as he creates a way to be sure (Descartes, pg105). The most common reasons for doubting as stated by Descartes are the ”Evil Demon Argument” or the “Deceiving God argument.” In the dream argument Descartes suggests that, when someone is dreaming even though they seem awake, they can remember mistakenly believing they were awake in the past only to wake and realize they were deceived. Moreover, he continues to explain that there is nothing that can ”mark” the occurrences to prove that one was awake. It is true because those marks could also be dreamed. On the other hand, for ”Deceiving God or Evil Demon Argument,” Descartes describe God as a deceiver. In this argument, he challenges the most precious traditional beliefs. He tries to explain that God might be forcing us into believing something that is not true. He raises concerns that people should doubt even the truth they believe. He also believes there is an existence of an evil demon who tries to deceive people in all they imagine, hear or see around them. Descartes perceives doubts as contrasting conviction such that when assurance increases, doubt decreases. He shows how pointless it can be to claim something to be the truth or real if we don’t know how the claims were created. When declaring our beliefs are justified, they are supposed to be based ultimately on beliefs that are indubitable. Hence, those beliefs could be a firm foundation where all subsequent beliefs become grounded and declared as true. Descartes proves the existence of knowledge by using the presence of doubt. He proves himself as the basic character of thinking and that his mind is distinct from his body. Descartes shows that knowledge is possible when demonstrating how he can think. He uses the method of doubt in the meditations to draw the reader to different philosophical conclusions. This assignment focuses on the role of doubt in Descartes’ meditations. ROLE OF DOUBT NOTION IN DESCARTES’ MEDITATIONS 3 The presence of doubt notion helps to prove that knowledge exists. It helps in seeking more knowledge to determine the reality or beliefs. In the first meditation, for instance, Descartes establishes the method of doubts as he explains the roots on which an individual can doubt all things particularly material objects. The notion of uncertainty delivers an individual from prejudice. Therefore, they are able trigger their minds to withdraw from senses. It also prevents one from doubting the truth. It is possible to find that there are no complete, definite truths. Moreover, there is likelihood that our prejudices cannot be eliminated or what we think is the decisive foundation of other believes are not entirely critical. Hence, the notion of doubts in the meditation is challenging those beliefs even when they have been held for a long time. In the uncertainty of perception Descartes suggests, to determine a belief in particular, one has to doubt all things they know. By this, it means that to perceive if some truths can be challenged, one should temporarily pretend to question everything (hypothetical doubt). Therefore, by this argument, one can obtain knowledge hence determine the reality of their beliefs. Moreover, the notion of doubts shows us how we can guarantee our beliefs in reality by limiting our ideas based on the thing that are indubitable. Descartes insists that people should be able to only believe what they have justification to do so and are not supposed to cling to things that are outside their ideas for argument. Moreover, we should judge our beliefs based on methods guaranteeing our views are correct. Therefore by this, we are shown how to distinguish what is real and what is not. Ordinary experiences in the world are not able to offer a guaranteed foundation where all knowledge can be rooted. People are always disappointed to realise that what they had learned are just prejudices or incorrect and this can make them think that all other things they have learned are mistaken. The notion of the doubt by Descartes establishes a method that can help in avoiding errors. It traces what is known back to be a firm foundation for specific ROLE OF DOUBT NOTION IN DESCARTES’ MEDITATIONS 4 beliefs. Furthermore, in Descartes meditation, the doubt notion helps to prove God’s existence. He reinforces a ”life after death” belief as well as the soul immortality. He advances the perception of ” all things can exist only because of the presence of God who created them.” He continues by declaring that only by God’s intentions those things can cease existing. By this, he creates an idea of a supreme faultless which necessitate perfection (Chynoweth, 160). In his ideas, he realizes that the idea of supremely perfect being entails the existence of God. Descartes shows that it is true that the geometrical certitude demonstrates independence upon God’s knowledge. Additionally, the notion of doubts acts as an explanation of imagination and understanding. Descartes explains even though the human mind is distinct and separate from the human body; they are closely related in that they work as one. Moreover, the notion of doubts continues to show that errors occur due to sensation, and highlights the means of avoiding the errors. By doing this, Descartes lays the casework for inferring the existence of the material object and proves the existence of the world. Moreover the notion of doubt helps us understand that people are acquired by bodies and have always been the subject to doubt since it brings the reasoning type that is necessary to show God’s existence (Chynoweth, 160). Descartes uses the methods that remove doubts by proving the existence of material to show the truth in proving the existence of immorality as well as God’s subsistence. If the idea of God existence did not have any actual reality, it would not have perfection. It will not be the perception of a supremely perfect being but rather the idea of something having imperfection. It would be regarded as not existing. Hence there will be no idea of the existence of God. The perception of God without existence is incomprehensible. Consequently, this means presence is controlled by the essence of infinite substances, and ROLE OF DOUBT NOTION IN DESCARTES’ MEDITATIONS 5 therefore, God has to exist by his nature. Any attempt to visualize God as not real will be like trying to imagine the mounting without a valley. Additionally, the doubt notion helps to understand the existence of bodies. Descartes eliminates the problem of a dream when he proves the existence of the material world, as well as the existence of entities (Owens, pg 231). In determining this, his argument is derived from the belief that divinely-bestowed human sense of cognition must always be considered as adequately made for some specific purpose. Descartes argues that if the perceptive pictures extend things through their conception of geometrical outline, it is possible that those things exist. Moreover, because the image is projected solely toward the ideas of bodies as well as the ways which they can decisively be changed, there are possibilities that those things exist. The notion of the doubt by Descartes plays a significant role in using philosophy to prove the existence of Bodies. Because sense faculty of perception is entirely a passive ability to get ideas of physical objects produced, some external source outside one’s control proves that objects exist. Descartes argues that God directly puts the perception of bodies in people’s minds with nothing to correspond to them. He continues by saying that God does not provide ideas without causing real natural objects to exist. Furthermore, Descartes notion of doubts acts as an inspiration to the modern philosophy. Due to his valued skepticism and reasoning as first-person discourse, he shifted the focus from God to the individual (Ruddle-Miyamoto, 134). When comparing the texts of Descartes and other philosophies, one feels like they are with Descartes along the ways as he shows doubts and moves to certainty. Additionally, through critical introspections, Descartes initiated the concept of inner self. The view where everyone possesses a distinguished core unique from objects in the world and that self-knowledge is attained through self-scrutiny. The idea sounds very obvious in ROLE OF DOUBT NOTION IN DESCARTES’ MEDITATIONS 6 the modern day but back then it was not the case. Those days God explained everything, and there was no need for self-consultation. Without any considerable doubt, these views played a significant role in philosophical history. Descartes’ speculation impacted and inspired the modern art greatly. In his writing, he turned inward and noted that humans possess a unique ability to think about what they are thinking. By this, he triggered difficult brainteasers, for instance; are we living in simulations? Is it what we refer to ‘reality’ a dream world? In the years later these same questions became the basis for mainstream movies Inception and Matrix. Furthermore, the emergence of Descartes notion of doubts is very critical in demonstrating modern philosophical discourse about imagination (Owens, pg 231). Descartes describes imagination as a crucial in divine inspiration. He creates doubts in everything that is believed and tries to question his imagination in the process. To establish the truth in the uncertainties, he had built, he in turn, triggered the broader imagination of his own beliefs hence Descartes challenges what he initially considered as the truth. Descartes realizes the connection of subjectivity to rely on representation processes made possible by imagination. He shows a strong objection to the imagination. Additionally, the resulting ambivalence becomes a significant modern condition model of subjectivity. He develops the philosophical system that is exclusively located in the imagination of subjects’ reflexive perception process as well as its capacity for reason. Therefore, the notion is very critical in the modern philosophy and as well an inspiration to the present philosophers. Consequently, the notion of doubt by Descartes plays a significant role in viewing and evaluating the nature of the mind as well as its ideas (Descartes, pg102). In proving this point, Descartes differentiates intellectual view and desire to be what belongs to the mind’s nature alone, while imagination and sensation are faculties of the brain that is connected to the body. He ROLE OF DOUBT NOTION IN DESCARTES’ MEDITATIONS 7 concludes that feelings and imagination to be the faculties of the mind in a weaker perspective that will and intellect needs a body to perform their purpose. The brain is a matter, and the modes of a thinking case are its ideas. Minds are perceived as substances which require God’s concurrence to exist. Although, views are ways one thinks and materials because they are ideas of thought. Ideas are mainly the fabrications of the mind and are manipulated by the brain. The personal views are placed in the memory by God. Descartes notion of doubt helps us to understand our thoughts, as well as the foundations our thoughts are built upon, and provides a process of re-evaluation using doubt which sharpens critical thinking and philosophical thought by self-analysis of the validity of the thought or belief by exclusion of what is in any way doubtable. By these arguments, Descartes is perceived as the father of philosophy. Conclusion Descartes puts into use the concept of the doubt to show the truth and eliminate uncertainty (Chynoweth, 160). He provides the most precise explanation of doubt using mathematical terms. As developed by Descartes, the method of doubt needs one to participate in the same reasoning. Instead of looking at something and concludes it exist, Descartes methods requires an individual to doubt the existence of everything thing. By so doing once starts to create assumptions by firstly striping away the assumption something exists, then assumes that the perception of the thing accurately shows the object. The concept of doubt is very critical in shaping the modern philosophy whereby it uses imagination to challenge the way your mind is thinking. ROLE OF DOUBT NOTION IN DESCARTES’ MEDITATIONS 8 Works Cited Chynoweth, Brad. “Descartes Resolution of The Dreaming Doubt.” Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, vol. 91, no. 2, 2010, pp. 153–179., doi:10.1111/j.1468-0114.2010.01363.x. Descartes, Rene. “Meditations on First Philosophy.” Descartes: Selected Philosophical Writings, pp. 73–122., doi:10.1017/cbo9780511805059.006. Owens, David. “Descartes’ Use of Doubt.” Oxford Scholarship Online, 2017, doi:10.1093/oso/9780198713234.003.000ssssssss7. Ruddle-Miyamoto, Akira O. “Regarding Doubt and Certainty in al-Ghaza?li?’s Deliverance from Error and Descartes’ Meditations.” Philosophy East and West, vol. 67, no. 1, 2017, pp. 160–176., doi:10.1353/pew.2017.0011.