Introduction: that are found in urban, sub-urban

Introduction:

                Mosquitoes are the most
viral issues that are found in urban, sub-urban and rural environment. Mosquitoes
are the main carriers of dengue, malaria and several other diseases that causes
tremendous problems even also leads to death. The death rate is continued to be
higher in each and every year due to many infections and diseases which are
caused by mosquitoes like  dengue and
malaria. Nearly 700
million people are getting mosquito borne illness each year resulting in
greater than one million of deaths. Controlling
such diseases is extremely difficult in now a days because of the high rate of
reproduction and development of mosquitoes that are resistance to insecticides
and commercially available repellents.

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Some of the ways to prevent the mosquito are cleaning the environment
and using insect repellent  that  totally wrecked the fatal defense of
mosquitoes. Although chemical that  provides quick mortality, resistance of
mosquito against the use of insecticides.
Commercially available mosquitos repellents are mainly consisting of
pyrethroids, DEET like synthetic compounds, which may leads to hyper excitation of nervous systems, long term
uses result in corneal damage, liver damage, asthma and several other problems.
A lot of researches are going on to improve efficiency of repellents and
decrease the effects on human health. But the deadly and harmful effects of
modern insect repellents used in houses have not yet drawn the attention of
many scientists.  The need for the
development of the most effective mosquito repellent should be taken into
consideration due to the many toxicity problems, together with improve the incidence
of mosquito resistance.

In the modern civilization, we are forgetting all
the natural resources which are easily available for human purposes and one of
that are the cattle dung. Dung’s are placing a major role since time immemorial
and it is considered as a third important services rendered by animals. Dung is
utilized as a biofertilizer, cheap fuel, paper production and insect repellent.
The later is to be focused very seriously in the modern era.

Elephant dung, a cheapest source which can be used
for many purposes such as paper production, fuel source, biofertilizer and
insect repellents. The evidence for the preparation of mosquito repellent is
not yet drawn by any scientists. This is the why we came up to one decision to
prepare elephant dung based herbal mosquito repellent which
is completely free from chemicals. We
have prepared mosquito repellent some of the natural ingredients like flowers
of Nerium oleander, tulasi (Ocimum tenuiflorum), neem leaves (Azadirachta indica), lemon grass oil, leaves of vitex negundo and natural loban with the
elephant dung to enhance the efficiency of the mosquito repellent.

Raw
materials have been selected based on experience and practice by our
ancestors.The formulation of these mosquitoes repellent is safe, eco-friendly,
cheap, easy to use and has maximum efficiency against mosquitoes.

Objectives

Ø  To
develop the ecofriendly organic mosquito repellent by using Elephant dung and
other natural materials.

Ø  To
determine the efficiency of developed mosquito repellent.

Ø  To
distribute this ecofriendly organic mosquito repellent to the village people to
completely obstruct the mosquitoes population in and around their areas.

 

Materials:

Elephas maximus indicus Dung

 

Azadirachta indica

Leaves of azardirachta is antifeedant that break the
metamorphosis of mosquito repellent even at low concentration (Van,2004) and it
also act as effective insect repellent (Farahna et al,2010).mechanism behind
the azadirachta is to block the latic receptor and makes the mosquito to get
away from the place (Elissa, 2004; Patel, 2012). The neem trees are found in
most tropical and sub tropical area over the world. The compound which are
causing toxic to mosquitoes are complex tetranorterpenoid limnoid (Mordue and
Nisbet,2000).

Nerium oleander

The components that are found in N.oleander
are flavanoids, sterols etc… which has the prpoperty of mosquito repellent and
it causes 43% morality rate at 3% concentration when exposed to 24 hours (Fouad
El-akhal, 2015).

Ocimum tenuiflorumVitex
negundoLemon
Grass oilBenzoin powder

 

 

1.     Methodology

                              
I.           
Raw
materials selection

Raw
materials will be selected based on the naturally available leaves and flowers
which are having more efficiency to kill the mosquitoes. The raw materials
which are  used for  the production of the eco friendly mosquito
repellent are Elephant dung, Neem leaves, Nerium flowers,leaves of vitex
negundo, Loban, Tulsi, Maida and Lemon grass oil. Elephant Dung has large ash
content, low carbon content and burning ratio is low. The popular ways of
repelling mosquitoes is by using Neem leaves along with the elephant dung. As
it has an excellent antiviral property while burning, it can tremendously work
as a mosquitoes repellent. Tulsi has a wonderful antiviral and insecticidal
property, it can also be added with the elephant dung to achieve high
efficiency mosquito repellent. Loban (sambarani) is a resin from a tree (Styrax
benzoin) and is a good repellent of insects and mosquitoes. Loban is
also  a good insect repellent, when
fumigated. It has the qualities of an insecticide, is antiseptic and it can
fight against epidemics. Its smoke creates a soothing atmosphere of calm
serenity. Lemon grass oil is having good infectant property and smell, it can
be sprayed over the repellent coil. Apart from these ingredients, Maida acts as
an excellent binder.