Introduction: motor. This process generates a lot of


The world has many engines and cars that pose a
danger because they cause a lot of pollution and greenhouse gases. Having
efficient green cars can help engines and cars run efficiently and help reduce
many dangerous impacts on this world. This will help us learn about environmental-friendly
technologies that have been made from the past and will continue to be made in
the future for a safe environment. Therefore, we as humans should help to
promote in making new automotive technologies that will create success in our
world for a better living in terms of transportations and reducing global
warming and pollution from gas emissions in the atmosphere.                                     

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            Hybrid vehicles use two
or more distinct types of powers, which includes internal combustion engines
and using diesel engines. The both include electric generators that both power
the electric motors. Many hybrids have much advanced technologies. Those technologies
are regenerative braking in which it recaptures energy that is normally lost
during the braking. It uses forward motion of wheels to turn the motor. This
process generates a lot of hybrid electricity and it helps to slow down the
vehicle. The other technology is electric motor drive which provides power to
assist the engine in acceleration, passing, and hill climbing. The last
technology is automatic start/stop, in which it automatically shuts down the
engine when the vehicle comes to a stop and restarts it when the accelerator is
pressed. This immensely reduces the waste generated from the idling.


Types of Hybrids:

Hybrids – more efficient, can
automatically choose to operate in series mode, parallel mode, and all-electric

Hybrid – it is typically as
efficient as a full hybrid but is limited to parallel mode.

Hybrid – have larger
batteries, and run on all-electric mode.



Friendly: Hybrid cars run
cleaner and has better gas mileage which makes it environmentally friendly.


Benefits: Hybrid cars are
supported by many credits that help to make them affordable. Lower annual tax
bills and charges comes in the form of less amount of money spent on the fuel.


from Light Materials: Hybrid
vehicles are made up of much lighter materials containing inside of them in
which they would require less energy to run. In addition, the engine is also
smaller and lighter which results in a good thing, it saves a lot of energy.


Resale Value: Hybrid vehicles
started to gain a lot higher than average resale values. Therefore, it is
significantly helping to control people’s budget as gas prices go higher. It
also reduces fossil fuels and lowers carbon footprint which is efficient for
the environment.



Power: Since hybrid cars have
a range of twin powered cars, the gasoline engine inside of them is a lot
smaller than a regular single powered engine. That is because they are suited
for city driving and not for speed.


Poorer Handling: Components inside the car add weight and
break up the extra space. The weight is fuel efficient but if there is no
weight then the motor and better downsize which makes less support on the
suspensions and body of car.


of High Voltage in Batteries:
In case if there is an accident in any way, the high voltage in the batteries
can cause a high chance of anyone getting electrocuted and it will be difficult
to get out of the car.



Steam Engine:

            A steam engine is basically a heat engine in
which it performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluids. Steam
engines would be classified as external combustion engines where all the fluids
are separated from all the combustion products. There are a process and cycle
that works for steam engines. Firstly, water is heated and then transforms into
steam in a boiler that operates and runs at a high pressure. When the steam is
expanded through the pistons, a lot of mechanical work is being done where the
reduced pressure steam then exhausts into the atmosphere, and then through that
process it goes back into the boiler. Boilers are basically pressure vessels
that store all the water that is needed for boiling, it transfers heat to water
just like boiling.


Two Methods of Transferring Heat
to Water:

Boiler: water that is stored
in and runs through many tubes which are covered by hot gases around it.


Boiler: water which is
partially filled inside vessels just like a combustion chamber/furnace and fire
tubes through where the hot gases are flowing.


Types of Steam Engines:

Steam Engines: simple
one-cylinder steam engine. Makes piston help rotate the wheel.


Steam Engines: help pump water
out of the flooded coal mines back in the early 1800s.


Steam Engines: Pushes piston
sending in two different ways using steam and the piston is usually being
powered only half the time.



Steam Engines: It uses extra
steam pipes and valves to help push around the piston in different ways using
the power of steam. But in this type of steam engine, steam powers it all the



It can be
located anywhere because the water is heated or boiled in a different and
separate boiler to produce the steam


engines have so much power that their more powerful than wind-mills.



They can
use any combustible materials such as wood, coal, oil in which these all give
the engine power as they are burned like a fire place.


The combustible
materials contained are much cheaper today than what they used to be back in
the 1900’s.



The cost
for the parts and the engine itself is very costly


engines don’t start as quickly because it takes a while to start burning up


engines have low efficiency because the engine only heats 20% energy into work.


There is a
risk of a severe injury because the boiler is fired by high intense pressure
and that may cause a fire hazard.


A steam
engine isn’t fully environmentally friendly because it involves working with
fossil fuels which cause global warming. Therefore, it wouldn’t be an efficient
source to use.



Solar Energy Vehicle:

            Solar energy vehicles are electric vehicles
that are completely powered by the direct solar energy that is received from
the sun. Which is in a very efficient manner. There are Photovoltaic Cells
(PVC) that are inside of solar panels, and they use and convert the sun’s
direct energy into electric energy for the vehicle to run. In many cases,
photovoltaic modules are used in terms of auxiliary power units on my solar
cars but mainly on passenger cars. The photovoltaic cells are made up of many
semi-conductors where they create a flow for the electrons. That flow helps to
generate electricity to power up the battery. That would run the vehicle’s
motor to run the car. In some cases, they don’t have batteries because some
solar vehicles can direct the power from the sun straight to the electric



Eco-Friendly: Solar-powered vehicles have no emission level
and they don’t need non-renewable resources that burn fuel. Therefore, they
don’t release greenhouse gases or other types of pollution. Its all efficient.


Availability: Since solar cars
get their energy from the sun, it will always provide with endless energy that
never last.


No Fuel
Costs: Unlike other fueled
vehicles, solar vehicles have no fuels costs and if there is any damage, then
the maintenance is also at a minimum low cost. 

Comfort: Since solar-powered
cars have components such as aluminum and other lightweight components, they
run a lot faster and smoothly than other vehicles that have diesel engines.



Layout: Solar vehicles need a
big area on the roof where the solar panels can be held, they have low wind
resistance and can hold a max of 2 passengers inside.


Practicality: These green cars
don’t have the required diving safety features and equipment’s like normal cars
do these days. Solar vehicles don’t have wiper blades, headlights and rear
mirrors. Also, many other components that must also be taken care of is
suspensions, steering, brakes, secured panels and arranged batteries.


Batteries: Solar panels and
their batteries are extremely costly, and it must be reduced.


Storage Capacity: The
photovoltaic cells convert a less percentage of sunlight into electricity. They
only make use of 15-30% which is minimum to what it really should be.


            Hydrogen Fuel Cells:

                        Hydrogen fuel cells use hydrogen gas to power
up their electric motor. Which is different from conventional cars because they
run on gasoline and diesel. A fuel cell car combines and mixes hydrogen and
oxygen to produce electricity for the car to run the motor. Therefore, fuel
cell vehicles are known as Electric Vehicles (EV). A fuel cell produces electricity
from a chemical reaction without combustion. Therefore, the car produces no
toxins, greenhouse gases, or any particles so it is guaranteed an efficient



and Renewable: A large
abundance of these types of cars. Hydrogen can’t run out unlike other fossil
fuels or non-renewable resources.


Non-Toxic: Energy sources that we use nowadays are a lot
more in percentage of having toxins and harmful side effects, hydrogen fuel
cells don’t pose any risk to the environment and are completely non-toxic.


Powerful: These fuel cells are
powerful compared to many other sources. They are so powerful that they are
fueled inside of rockets that go into space.



Contribution to Climate Change:
Hydrogen fuels sells emit no greenhouse gases. Other non-renewable resources
emit greenhouse emissions which makes fuels cells a lot more efficient.


Cheap Maintenance: Hydrogen fuel cells are affordable for




Fuels Still Required: To
separate hydrogen and oxygen atoms and to make hydrogen fuel, fossil fuels are
required. If there are no fossil fuels, hydrogen energy wouldn’t be produced.


to Produce: Expensive for
setup. To make hydrogen energy that would always require to be in a costly way.



Flammable: Hydrogen fuel cells may not be toxic, but
they are flammable. Hydrogen can catch fire easily and has a chance to explode.
That would be risky for the environment.



Compressed Air:

            The compressed-air
vehicles (CAV) are powered from an air engine by using compressed air. That air
is stored in a tank. Instead of mixing fuel with air and burning it to drive
the pistons, compressed-air vehicles use compressed air itself to drive the
pistons. Compressed air has been used since the 19th century to
power up mine locomotives.


How the compressed air car works?

Air cars
have compressors built in them

uses air around the car to refill the compressed air tank, but this will take a
long time to refill. Approximately 2 hours.

There are
also refueling stations that help refill the compressors. It will take around 2
minutes to refill.

These cars
use a Compressed Air Engine (CAE) which helps the tanks hold the compressed

accelerators of the vehicle open a valve that is located on the tank to let the
air get out and release into a pipe which then goes into the engine.

pressure makes the push against the pistons to turn the crankshaft.

this will produce a lot of power for the speed



requires no gasoline used

production cost is very less because they don’t need any cooling system or
spark plugs

hazardous chemicals such as gasoline and battery acids

Emits no

Low costs
and very fuel efficient



Have a
very limited storage capacity for the air tank

A tank
that has a value of 30MPA of compressed air in tank is risky and hazardous.

must keep refilling their tanks after a while which wastes a lot of their time



Magnetic Levitation:

            Magnetic Levitation is
known as Maglev and it is a system that is used mainly for trains until now.
Trains use two sets of magnets, one pushes the train up off the track as of
levitation, and the other one moves the train in great speed and motion which requires
no friction to it. The technology that is used for Maglev requires no moving
parts contained to it and it helps the train swish through the magnets which
controls the train’s speed and the stability motion.


Two Types of Maglev Technology:

Suspension (EMS): They are
controlled electromagnets by using it electronically to make sure the train is
connected well to the track.


Suspension (EDS): Use better
conductors of electromagnets and permanent magnets to create a magnetic field,
because of that, it captures nearby currents that push the train the way it



Help save
lots of money because it requires little maintenance

efficient because there is no friction between them

free and run electricity on solar, wind, and renewable resources.


Trains are
a lot faster in terms of speed and when the train goes from one point to
another, it makes no noise unlike other modes of transportation.



start-up costs are expensive, and it can take years to pay off an amount


Trains use
up a lot of energy. The larger the train is, the more energy consumption it
will have and tougher to levitate around places.


Since the
trains are going at a fast speed, there are risks of incidents occurring for





In my opinion, I found hybrid vehicles as the
most efficient out of the 6 green sources. This is because hybrid cars have a
lot ore advantages than disadvantages and are a lot more useful. For example, a
hybrid car has a lot more advanced technology than other vehicles and sources
such as regenerative braking, electric motor drive and automatic start/stop. I
found these technologies very useful that a car should include. Also, it has 2
distinct types of power engines in it where it can be perfect for the cars that
use each type of engine. Therefore, a hybrid car would be the most useful.



In my opinion, a solar vehicle would be second
on my list because this type of source is known for being most efficient
because it uses the sun’s energy to power up the car and drive. Also, it releases
no pollution or greenhouse gases and has endless energy that will never last.
The reason I chose this to be second instead of the hybrid vehicle is because
this can only hold up to 2 passengers and it only gives a small percentage of
energy to the car using PVC.


Magnetic Levitation

In my opinion, the option for magnetic
levitation would be my 3rd best because this has a lot of advanced
technology benefits to it. It helps the train work out perfectly to make it
move and keep it guiding on the track using the best possible and efficient
technology. It uses EMS and EDS which are both advanced technologies. It causes
no harm to the environment in any way and can get a human from one place to the
other in the fastest time. I chose this 3rd over solar and hybrid
because this source is only usable for trains at this moment, they may make it
for vehicles in the future. Another cause is that this source uses a lot of
energy. But overall, it is a great source for the environment.


Hydrogen Fuel Cell

In my opinion, a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle
would be my fourth best option on the list because this source can be very
reliable at many times. These type of fuel cells use only hydrogen and oxygen
to help power up the car which are very reliable sources found in our atmosphere
and are here always. Hydrogen fuel cells don’t emit any pollution, greenhouse
gases or impact our climate. This source is the most powerful out of the
others. But I would prefer solar, hybrid and maglev vehicles over this one
because although this uses no fossil fuels, it only requires fossil fuels to
break up the hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Also, since this source is powerful, it
is very expensive.


Compressed Air

In my opinion, compressed air should be 5th
best in the list because although it isn’t the best, it has many good sides to
it rather than bad sides. Compressed Air is basically the natural air used to
drive the pistons. That would be better than mixing it with fuel. There is no
pollution and the best part is it requires no gasoline for the car. There are
stations where people can refill their tank. But the only reason I would prefer
this 5th after the other sources is because the tank runs out
quickly and filling it is a waste of time, another problem is that if the
capacity of the compressed air passes 30MPA it can be a huge risk factor for
the vehicle and people around it.


Steam Engine

In my opinion, I found this last amongst the 6
sources because it has a lot of side effects to the environment more than benefits.
Steam engines use heat energy to operate the engine using hot water. The steam
that is generated helps the pistons move. Although steam engines are powerful
and have many types of them, I find them harmful to the environment. They are
costly, they take a long time to start up, they aren’t that efficient, they
pose a severe injury of fire hazard and causes a lot of greenhouse gases to the
environment because they burn fossil fuels.






warming and pollution have made the environment look like a hazardous place.
With the help of many technologies and efficient vehicles, there can be a huge
reduction in greenhouse gases and these can make the environment a much better,
safer and green place. There are many technologies that help us now, but we
believe that there will be even better ones in the future to help get rid of
global warming forever. This “Green Car Project” has helped us learn about the
green sources deeply in detail about our vehicles and how they can be efficient
for our environment. Therefore, I am glad we did this assignment, it has
benefited us in many factors.